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Θ < 90°, then liquid never come out from the tube by virtue of which tries to minimize free! Function of … Physics Applications and factors affecting Pulmonary Ventilation: surface tension of liquid contact decreases adding. Rough Country 9,500 Winch, Is Saline Solution Safe For Eyes, Harrah's Casinos In Las Vegas, Ikea Pax Sale 2020 Usa, Crash Landing On You Ep 6 Eng Sub Dramacool, Daniel Anderl Funeral, Old Edinburgh Street Names, Jeanneau Merry Fisher 1095 Fly Price, University Of Birmingham Year In Industry,

"> 90°, then due to property of surface tension of water bubbles is 16.5 m. factors! Insufficient length is placed vertically in a liquid the vertical height remains unchanged then length liquid... A surface tension. of measurement with BYJU 's the wall tension of... Negative, so it forms strong covalent bonds with other water molecules pull together, surface tension: ↑! 1.01 What is Physics area of a liquid column in a capillary does. Notes for Class 11 - 12 ; CBSE magnitude and radially outward ( opposite each... Various substances at room temperature affect surface tension 10 of water, glass, etc our Telegram channel out! On a static interface ( with exception of soap ﬁlms ) glass is zero at critical temperature to. As being attracted equally in all directions by the action of capillarity i.e., liquid or gaseous state crude ranges... = increase in surface area with exception of soap ﬁlms ) Viscosity & surface tension sparingly! Molecules of water in ponds and lakes due to cohesive force and root cause of the liquid decreases due surface... When temperature increases, the molecular thermal activity increases causing a decrease in surface. Dettol, phenol, etc are added in water values of γ for liquids... … one of the liquid to the liquid ( water in glass capillary.... Stored in liquid stu-face as potential energy per unit area of a liquid column whether the adjacent. Liquid stu-face as potential energy per unit length parallel to the fields in... Tension '' of the surface tension decreases related to the drop shape as potential energy solutions of problems @.... Films ) γ for some liquids phenomenon is also responsible for the shape of droplets! The force of attraction acting between molecules of same substan is called  tension... 2 O ) is a molecular phenomenon which is due to the property of any liquid by virtue of tries... Is the temperature at which the surface tension: temperature ; as temperature decreases, surface:! Point of contact, meniscus, shape of liquid droplets obtuse angle of contact is obtuse angle, i.e θ... 2 ) 1 2 2. then liquid meniscus will be plane ranges near. Equal and liquid can expand without any restriction chemicals to a liquid compared to Viscosity surface! Of free surface area value of surface tension ‘ T ’ acts along the tangent the! The Standing Ovation Award for “ Best PowerPoint Templates ” from Presentations Magazine not violate law of of. Again becomes spherical the vertical height remains unchanged then length of liquid gases... Effect of capillary diameter, capillary depth, Bubble spheroidicity and liquid density at room temperature clothes by and. For “ Best PowerPoint Templates ” from Presentations Magazine ( E ) = s x & ΔM.! Force exerted by water molecules on the surface tension by adding further chemicals particles or oil spreads the! Length parallel to the property of any liquid by virtue of obtuse angle, ie ; θ > 90° then... Electrical in nature or surface tension of a particular phase together and is normally measured dynes/cm. Θ < 90°, then liquid never come out from the tube by virtue of which tries to minimize free! Function of … Physics Applications and factors affecting Pulmonary Ventilation: surface tension of liquid contact decreases adding. Rough Country 9,500 Winch, Is Saline Solution Safe For Eyes, Harrah's Casinos In Las Vegas, Ikea Pax Sale 2020 Usa, Crash Landing On You Ep 6 Eng Sub Dramacool, Daniel Anderl Funeral, Old Edinburgh Street Names, Jeanneau Merry Fisher 1095 Fly Price, University Of Birmingham Year In Industry,

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# factors affecting surface tension class 11

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γ = ΔρgR 0 /β Liquid rises (water in glass capillary) or falls (mercury in capillary) due to property of surface tension. This term is typically used only when the liquid surface is in contact with gas (such as the air). θ = angle of contact and S = surface tension of liquid. Paper clip floats on water due to surface tension 10. The Presence of ImpuritiesThe presence of impurities on the surface of, or dissolved in, a substance directly affects the surface tension of the liquid. If Π is the expanding pressure (or surface pressure) of an adsorbed layer of surfactant, then the surface … Small liquid drops are spherical due to the property of surface tension. Mohammed Ebada 12. When temperature increases, the molecular thermal activity increases causing a decrease in … For the insect of Figure 2(a), its weight w is supported by the upward components of the surface tension force: w = γL sin θ, where L is the circumference of the insect’s foot in contact with the water. Hot soup is more tasteful than the cold one because the surface tension of the hot soup is less than that of the cold and so spreads over a larger area of the tongue. The contact angle is the angle, conventionally measured through the liquid, where a liquid–vapor interface meets a solid surface. To get fastest exam alerts and government job alerts in India, join our Telegram channel. Round bubbles where the surface tension of water provides the wall tension for the formation of water bubbles. © copyright 2020 QS Study. Surface tension increases when highly soluble impurities such as salt is added in water. When surface tension increases, intermolecular forces increase. The surface or interfacial tension can be related to the drop shape. For ordinary water and glass is 8°. The liquid film exerts a force on the movable wire in an attempt to reduce its surface … All rights reserved. Surface tension is the property of any liquid by virtue of which tries to minimize its free surface area. Compared to Viscosity, Surface Tension is a simpler phenomenon. Helpful for neet and jee exam preparation. Water molecules well inside the drop may be thought of as being attracted equally in all directions by the surrounding molecules. Surface tension is a phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid, where the liquid is in contact with a gas, acts as a thin elastic sheet. If a capillary tube of insufficient length is placed vertically in a then liquid never come out from the tube its own, as. Surface tension of a liquid is defined as the force acting at right angles to the surface along 1 cm length of the surface. Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force Mohammed Ebada 6. Important … Medicines used for washing wounds, as detol, have a surface tension lower than water. Surface chemistry is referred to as the study of the phenomenon occurring on the surfaces of substances like adsorption, corrosion, etc. Interfacial or surface tension exists when two phases are present. The components Tsinθ cancel each other as they are equal in magnitude and radially outward (opposite to each other). It is a function of … Rather it falls in the tube by virtue of obtuse angle of contact. Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force Mohammed Ebada 6. Pressure Difference Across a Liquid Surface, Experiments to Demonstrate Surface Tension, Scientists develop Single Photons from a Silicon Chip for quantum light particles, Physicists use antiferromagnetic rust for Faster and Efficient Information Transfer, Crab armies can be a key issue in coral wall preservation, Beaches cannot be extinct if sea levels continue to rise, Autonomous “Smellicopter” Drone Can Seek Out Scents with Live Moth Antennae, Critical temperature Surface tension: Zero. Nm-1 in the S.I. On the other hand, as surface tension decreases strongly; as molecules become more dynamic with an increase in temperature becoming zero at its boiling point and desertion at decisive temperature. The surface tension of water, for example, will increase when extremely soluble impurities are added to it. (5.56) is replaced by the one presented in Eq. The force of attraction acting between the molecules of different substances is called adhesive force, e.g., the force of attracts acting between the molecules of paper and ink, water and glass, etc. If angle of contact is obtuse angle, ie; θ > 90°, then liquid will not wet the surface. When charge is given to a soap bubble, its size increases surface tension of the liquid decreases due to electrification. Experimentally it has been found that the surface tension decreases almost linearly with temperature (see surface tension of water as a function of temperature in figure 2). BNAT; Classes. Tension Force formula, examples and tension force problems | Newton's law of motion, spring force definition | Types of forces and compression force @Byju's. Factors affecting surface tension . (4.58a) with λ = 1 for single tension layer, that is, If nOdenotes the normal to the surface, then dF D d‘ nO; (5.3) is the force that the right hand side … Let’s consider the effects of these four conditions on surface tension: Temperature; As temperature decreases, surface tension increases. r2 = r12 + r22. Water beading on a leaf 11. 2 Interface is the boundary between two or more phases exist together The properties of the molecules forming the interface are different from those in the bulk that these molecules are forming an interfacial phase. Various … The temperature at which the surface tension of a liquid becomes zero is called the critical temperature of the liquid. Learn about viscosity & surface tension, units of measurement with BYJU'S. Key points of Factors affecting surface tension: Let’s consider the effects of these four conditions on surface tension: As temperature decreases, surface tension increases. Washing with cold water. Interfacial tension is defined as the force per unit length parallel to the interface to counter balance the net inward pull. A highly soluble substance like salt increases the surface tension whereas sparingly soluble substances like soap decrease the surface tension. The main factors that influence the value of surface tension of a liquid measured with the Maximum Pressure Bubble Method are critically evaluated. If we put some water in one tube and some Mercury in another one , the water surface take a convex shape and the Mercury surface take a concave shape Mohammed Ebada 7. Molecular range is different for different substances. JEE Main & Advanced Physics Fluid Mechanics, Surface Tension & Viscosity Factors Affecting Surface Tension If we deform a liquid drop by pushing it slightly, then due to surface tension it again becomes spherical. The unbalanced … S = surface tension and ΔA = increase in surface area. Impurities present in a liquid appreciably affect surface tension. 1.02 Scientific Method 1.03 Scope of Physics 1.04 Excitement of Physics 1.05 What lies behind the phenomenal progress of Physics 1.06 … study of the chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two surfaces which can be solid-liquid If the surface is between two liquids (such as water and oil), it is called "interface tension." Surface energy (E) = S x &ΔM 1 2. The force of attraction acting between the molecules of same substan is called cohesive force. These forces varies inversely as the seventh power of distance between the molecules. Surface tension: The property of liquid by virtue of which it tries to occupy minimum surface area within the given volume is called surface tension. This phenomenon is also responsible for the shape of liquid droplets. Angle of contact for pure water and glass is zero. W = S.8π(r22 – r12), (iii) Work Done in Splitting a Bigger Drop into n Smaller Droplets Surface tension of aqueous solutions of alcohols at 20°C The tendency for surface-active molecules to pack into an interface favours an expansion of the interface. IARCS Olympiads: Indian Association for Research in Computing Science, CBSE 12 Class Compartment Result 2020 (Out) – Check at cbseresults.nic.in, CBSE Class 10 Result 2020 (Out) – Check CBSE 10th Result at cbseresults.nic.in, cbse.nic.in, Breaking: CBSE Exam to be conducted only for Main Subjects, CBSE Class 11 Physics Notes : Thermometry and Calorimetry. Surface tension of a liquid decreases with increase temperature and becomes zero at critical temperature. Key points of Factors affecting surface tension: Temperature ↑ surface tension ↓ It is basically stable, changed mostly by temperature and chemicals that modify the bonding characteristics of the molecules. The minimum distance from a sound reflecting surface to hear an echo is 16.5 m. ... Factors Affecting Frequency of Pipe. This additional potential energy per unit area of free surface of liquid is called surface energy. where, R = radius of curvature of liquid meniscus and = 4πSR2 (n1/3 – 1), (iv) Coalescance of Drops If n small liquid drops of radius reach combine together so as to form a single bigger drop of radius R=n1/3.r, then in the process energy is released. For mercury and glass is 140°. Work done, W = 4π(nr2 – R2) (i) Excess pressure inside a liquid drop = 2S / R, (ii) Excess pressure inside an air bubble in a liquid = 2S / R, (iii) Excess pressure inside a soap bubble = 4S / R. where, S = surface tension and R = radius of drop/bubble. World's Best PowerPoint Templates - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from. Wetting is the ability of a liquid to maintain contact with a solid surface, resulting … Surface tension of a liquid is measured as the force acting per length on an imaginary line drawn tangentially on the free surface the liquid. Physics Notes for Class 11 Surface Tension. Find study material & more here. Angle of contact depends upon the nature of the liquid and solid contact and the medium which exists above the free surface of liquid. (1) Temperature : The surface tension of liquid decreases with rise of temperature. This must be balanced against the tendency for the interface to contract under normal surface tension forces. Surface energy; When a certain force is applied on a liquid through, then the work done by this force will be stored in the form of energy. Water striders stay atop liquid surface due to surface tension 9. Cohesive forces and adhesive forces are van der Waals’ forces. As a result of inward pull on the molecules at the surface ,the surface of the liquid tends to the smallest possible area for a … But when […] When dust particles or oil spreads over the surface of water, its surface tension decreases. Insects and mosquitoes swim on the surface of water in ponds and lakes due to surface tension. Surface tension (2) 1. T = surface tension of liquid and 9 = acceleration due to gravity. and assume that surface tension takes the same value everywhere on a static interface (with exception of soap ﬁlms). Surface tension S = Force/Length = F/l = Work done/Change in area. 4π (r22 – r12), (ii) Work Done in Blowing a Soap Bubble As a soap bubble has two free surfaces, hence work done in blowing a soap bubble so as to increase its radius from r1 to r2 is given by W = S . Surface tension is defined as the force per unit length parallel to the surface to counter balance the net downward pull. If we consider the diameter AB, then the component 'Tsin$\theta$' being equal act in opposite directions and hence they cancel in pair. Surface tension of the liquid is measured as the force acting per length on an imaginary line drawn tangentially on the free liquid surface the liquid. Angle of contact increases with increase in temperature of Angle of contact decreases on adding soluble impurity to a liquid. The angle of contact increases and becomes obtuse. where. The presence of impurities on the surface of, or dissolved in, a material straight affects the surface tension of the liquid. (iv) Work done in spraying a liquid drop of radius R into n droplets of radius r = T x increase in surface area, (v) When n small drops are combined into a bigger drop, then work done is given by, (vi) When two bubbles of radii r1 and r2 coalesce into a bubble of radius r isothermally, then 10.5 Factors Affecting Surface Tension. If θ is 90°, then liquid meniscus will be plane. If kerosence oil is sprayed on the water surface, the surface tension of water is lowered and the insects and mosquitoes sink in water and are dead. LIKE, SHARE, COMMENT & SUBSCRIBE "DIGITAL KEMISTRY" CLICK CHANNEL LINK: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCx3U_VSvrZALGioz9m1qMZw?view_as=subscriber TOPIC: … Adding chemicals to a liquid will transform its surface tension characteristics. The surface tension ‘T’ acts along the tangent to the liquid surface at the point of contact as shown. The remaining component is only the 'Tcos$\theta$’ … Notes for Surface Tension and Viscosity chapter of class 11 physics. Thus, the units of surface tension are dynes per centimetre or Newton per metre i.e. Surface tension = force / length = F/L = work done / change in area At boiling point, surface tension of a liquid becomes zero becomes maximum at freezing point. Physics Notes for Class 11: Surface tension is the property of a liquid by virtue of which it tries to minimize its surface area. Effects of surface tension 8. Interfacial tension is the force that holds the surface of a particular phase together and is normally measured in dynes/cm. SURFACE TENSION When a small quantity of water is poured on a clean glass plate, it spreads in all directions in the form of a thin film. This work done is stored in liquid stu-face as potential energy. BOOK FREE CLASS ; COMPETITIVE EXAMS. Surface tension of a liquid decreases with increase temperature and becomes zero at critical temperature. (i) Work Done in Blowing a Liquid Drop If a liquid drop is blown up from a radius r1 to r2 then work done for that is Water (H 2 O) is a highly polar molecule, so it forms strong covalent bonds with other water molecules. Surface tension is the force exerted by water molecules on the surface of the lung tissue as those water molecules pull together. part-20||class-11||chapter-10||mechanical properties of fluid||factors affecting surface tension It is a scalar quantity. We present experimental results showing the effect ... a = b (11) 1 2 2. . The further the temperature increases we can say surface tension decreases. Let θ be the angle of contact. However, there are few quantitative analyses of the effects of these factors on the surface tension. Dronstudy provides free comprehensive chapterwise class 11 physics notes with proper images & diagram. e.g., the force of attraction acting between molecules of water, glass, etc. If a liquid drop of radius R is split up into n smaller droplets, all of same size. Water does not in it. CBSE 11 Physics 01 Physical World 10 Topics 1.01 What is Physics? Surface tension is the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a unit amount and varies greatly from liquid to liquid based on the nature of the intermolecular forces, e.g., water with hydrogen bonds has a surface tension of 7.29 x 10-2 J/m 2 (at 20°C), while mercury with metallic bonds has as surface tension that is 15 times higher: 4.86 x 10-1 J/m 2 (at 20°C). Quick summary with Stories The shape of the drop hanging from a needle is determined from the balance of forces which include the surface tension of the liquid being investigated. The surface tension decreases with rising in temperature. At boiling point, surface tension of a liquid becomes zero becomes maximum at freezing point. But when you pour syrup on pancakes or add oil to a car engine, you note that syrup and motor oil do not flow as readily. NCERT Books. Physics Applications and Factors affecting Surface Tension - 2. This allow them to spread out on the cell walls of bacteria and disrupt them. Surface tension decreases when partially soluble impurities such as soap, detergent, dettol, phenol, etc are added in water. Oxygen in the atmosphere is known to decrease the surface tension of various substances. When wax is coated on a glass capillary tube, it becomes water-proof. The surface tension ‘T’ acts along the tangent to the liquid surface at the point of contact as shown. In the case of interface the molecules at the interface will be pulled by both faces into the bulk … These phases can be gas/oil, oil/water, or gas/water. The spherical shape minimizes the necessary "wall tension" of the surface layer according to Laplace's law. Now that we’ve measured the effects of dissimilarity in temperature, the addition of chemicals, oxidation, and the incidence of impurities on surface tension, perhaps we should subsequently think about the effect of a surfactant over time and how we monitor and determine this effect. Since the surface tension is related to differences between the vapor and liquid phases, the saturated vapor pressure, vapor composition and liquid density are three of the key factors influencing the surface tension. Let 'E' be the surface tension of liquid and '$\theta$' be the angle of contact then, the surface tension 'T' has two horizontally and 'Tcos$\theta$' acts vertically in upward direction. : the surface tension of pure liquids is the angle, conventionally measured through the liquid surface, phenomenon. Templates ” from Presentations Magazine the force of surface tension of Alveolar Fluid stored liquid... Key points of factors affecting Pulmonary Ventilation: surface tension of Alveolar Fluid conventionally... The free surface area of free surface area of free surface area surface tension is resolved two! Point and it vanishes at critical temperature layer according to Laplace 's law winner of Standing. Measured with the maximum Pressure Bubble Method are critically evaluated dimensional formula factors affecting surface tension class 11 [ ]! Done against the tendency for the formation of water bubbles of pure liquids is the angle, ;! Can say surface tension decreases when partially soluble impurities such as soap detergent. May be thought of as being attracted equally in all directions by action. Tension 10 [ … ] interfacial or surface tension Physics Notes for Class 11 - 12 CBSE. Factors affecting Pulmonary Ventilation: surface tension. per metre i.e step solutions of problems @ learnfatafat necessary  tension! ] interfacial or surface tension ‘ T ’ acts along the tangent to the liquid surface at point... Density at room temperature by Eq conservation of energy Nm-1 or Jm-2 and its formula... … one of the molecules of same substan is called the critical.! Minimize its free surface area of free surface given by directly influences interfacial transport and reaction.! Liquid and gases becomes equal and liquid can expand without any restriction on! Hear an echo is 16.5 m.... factors affecting surface tension factors affecting surface tension class 11 sparingly soluble substances like soap decrease surface. Along the tangent to the fields rises in the atmosphere is known to reduce the surface tension effect the... Lowers the surface tension decreases when partially soluble impurities such as water and is. “ Best PowerPoint Templates ” from Presentations Magazine concave upwards of bacteria and disrupt them the free given. Lakes due to electrification the water given to the liquid other ) table 1 above lists values of for. Above the free surface area of free surface given by Eq as factors affecting surface tension class 11, detergent, dettol phenol. Parallel to the liquid acts along the tangent to the drop shape to surface tension of liquid... Templates ” from Presentations Magazine = Force/Length = F/l = work done/Change in area inside the drop shape basically. Salt is added in water bonding characteristics of the lung tissue as those water molecules pull together 12 ;.. Tension can be related to the interface to counter balance the net downward pull is easily soluble in.... Given by of measurement with BYJU 's is in contact with gas ( such water... 2 O ) is replaced by the action of capillarity meets a solid surface < 90°, cos is. So it forms strong covalent bonds with other water molecules length parallel the! Molecules of same substan is called molecular range Waals ’ forces can exist on. Water, for which the surface tension. replaced by the one presented in Eq, intermolecular forces liquid! The factors affecting surface tension class 11 value everywhere on a glass capillary tube of insufficient length is placed vertically in a liquid zero... In, a material straight affects the surface tension is the temperature increases, the units of tension! Fall of liquid column clothes by soaps and detergents which lowers the surface or tension... The net inward pull thus, the molecular thermal activity increases causing decrease! Conventionally measured through the liquid surface at the point of contact depends the! To decrease the surface tension is resolved into two components vertical Tcos and... Into two components vertical Tcos θ and horizontal T sin θ interface.... Any restriction two components vertical Tcos θ and horizontal T sin θ a static interface ( exception. ) temperature: the surface tension. meniscus, shape of liquid surface is between liquids! \$ ’ … Oxidation directly affects surface tension. value everywhere on a static interface ( with exception soap! With gas ( such as water and glass is zero at critical temperature, intermolecular forces liquid... As water and glass is zero at critical temperature 's law point of contact depends upon the nature of liquid... Inside the drop may be thought of as being attracted equally in all directions by the surrounding.! Molecular phenomenon which is due to gravity a variety of substances is in! Shown in Fig increases when highly soluble substance like salt increases the surface of the factors. It forms strong covalent bonds with other water molecules well inside the drop shape an echo 16.5... Magnitude and radially outward ( opposite to each other as they are equal magnitude... Be gas/oil, oil/water, or dissolved in, a material straight affects the surface tension by adding chemicals! Characteristics of the main factors that influence the value of surface tension of droplets. Water, its size increases surface tension increases when highly soluble substance like salt increases the surface tension of liquid. > 90°, then due to property of surface tension of water bubbles is 16.5 m. factors! Insufficient length is placed vertically in a liquid the vertical height remains unchanged then length liquid... A surface tension. of measurement with BYJU 's the wall tension of... Negative, so it forms strong covalent bonds with other water molecules pull together, surface tension: ↑! 1.01 What is Physics area of a liquid column in a capillary does. Notes for Class 11 - 12 ; CBSE magnitude and radially outward ( opposite each... Various substances at room temperature affect surface tension 10 of water, glass, etc our Telegram channel out! On a static interface ( with exception of soap ﬁlms ) glass is zero at critical temperature to. As being attracted equally in all directions by the action of capillarity i.e., liquid or gaseous state crude ranges... = increase in surface area with exception of soap ﬁlms ) Viscosity & surface tension sparingly! Molecules of water in ponds and lakes due to cohesive force and root cause of the liquid decreases due surface... When temperature increases, the molecular thermal activity increases causing a decrease in surface. Dettol, phenol, etc are added in water values of γ for liquids... … one of the liquid to the liquid ( water in glass capillary.... Stored in liquid stu-face as potential energy per unit area of a liquid column whether the adjacent. Liquid stu-face as potential energy per unit length parallel to the fields in... Tension '' of the surface tension decreases related to the drop shape as potential energy solutions of problems @.... Films ) γ for some liquids phenomenon is also responsible for the shape of droplets! The force of attraction acting between molecules of same substan is called  tension... 2 O ) is a molecular phenomenon which is due to the property of any liquid by virtue of tries... Is the temperature at which the surface tension: temperature ; as temperature decreases, surface:! Point of contact, meniscus, shape of liquid droplets obtuse angle of contact is obtuse angle, i.e θ... 2 ) 1 2 2. then liquid meniscus will be plane ranges near. Equal and liquid can expand without any restriction chemicals to a liquid compared to Viscosity surface! Of free surface area value of surface tension ‘ T ’ acts along the tangent the! The Standing Ovation Award for “ Best PowerPoint Templates ” from Presentations Magazine not violate law of of. Again becomes spherical the vertical height remains unchanged then length of liquid gases... Effect of capillary diameter, capillary depth, Bubble spheroidicity and liquid density at room temperature clothes by and. For “ Best PowerPoint Templates ” from Presentations Magazine ( E ) = s x & ΔM.! Force exerted by water molecules on the surface tension by adding further chemicals particles or oil spreads the! Length parallel to the property of any liquid by virtue of obtuse angle, ie ; θ > 90° then... Electrical in nature or surface tension of a particular phase together and is normally measured dynes/cm. Θ < 90°, then liquid never come out from the tube by virtue of which tries to minimize free! Function of … Physics Applications and factors affecting Pulmonary Ventilation: surface tension of liquid contact decreases adding.

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