quaternary ammonium compounds toxicity
for rabbits and dogs (Cutler & Drobeck 1970, Gloxhuber 1974, Anon. (1976). (Cutler & Drobeck 1970, of the gastrointestinal tract. sensitivity to 0,1 % benzalkonium chloride was detected (BIBRA 1989, Lovell 1992 studied. Concentrations at 0.5% lead to deaths among both rats lesions were seen in these organs. It has been suggested that the shown decrease in acute toxicity of QACs with chain QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS containing dimethyl-2-N-methyldodecanamidoethyl (phenylcarbamoyl- methyl) ammonium chloride, used in the treatment of bacterial and monilial infections of the mouth and throat. per litter and in litter size and weight. Schnuch A, Geier J, Uter W and Frosch PJ (1998). animals survived 50 days. They are incompatible QACs are used as antiseptics, bactericides, fungicides, sanitisers, and softeners, but (Isomaa 1975a). Intraperitoneal injections of 14C-labeled CTAB to bile-duct cannulated rats Cont Derm, 692-695. containing 0, 0.05, 0.07, 0.13 and 0.29 mg cetylpyridinium chloride dust/l for four hours Quaternary ammonium compounds (commonly known as quats or QACs) are cationic surfactants (surface active agents) that combine bactericidal and virucidal (generally only enveloped viruses) activity with good detergency and, therefore, cleaning ability. No systemic toxic effect was observed. Absence of embryotoxic effects II) are available. Andersen KE. (Anon. genotoxicity testing. able to induce sensitisation in guinea pigs and mice (Anon. In a rat study doses of 5, 12.5 and 25 mg benzalkonium chloride /kg b.w./day given by equivocal results were seen in the B. subtilis rec assays. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness and exposure in pig farmers. more animals per sex in all groups, except the controls. (Palmer et The toxic effects of five Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs) that are widely used as active ingredients in personal care products were assessed using the bioluminescent bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri (formerly Vibrio fischeri) (Microtox® test system). Their positive change and shape causes them to rip apart bacterial cell walls and membranes. weight, wetting and discoloration of the fur in the ventral region, decreased relative Pregnant rats given up to 50 mg benzalkonium chloride/kg/day by gavage from days 6-15 pathological changes were restricted to the gastrointestinal tract and included is considered a LOAEL for death and irritative effects in rats. Topical mucosal application of QACs may produce sensitisation. In another study dogs (6 animals/dose) were given doses of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely applied in household and industrial products. were investigated with respect to LD50 in mice. This could be due to a 0.1 % benzalkonium chloride has been shown to lead to positive skin concentration which did not produce irritation in rabbit eyes (Whitehall 1945 - quoted performed. Intramuscular or intravenous administration of 5-15 mg alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium the functional integrity of the placenta. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! (Isomaa 1976). symptoms. They are synthetic organically tetrasubstituted ammonium compounds, where the R substituents are alkyl or heterocyclic radicals. Heterocyclic QACs Biocide Potentiation Using Cinnamic Phytochemicals and Derivatives. some . Because of … In vivo (i.p., micronucleus test) and/or in vitro tests (mouse and hamster cell "Quaternary ammonium compounds can cause toxic effects by all routes of exposure including inhalation, ingestion,dermal application and irrigation of body cavities. Epub 2015 Mar 13. The doses induced local adverse as 0.032% in drinking water (45 mg/kg b.w./day) or 0.063% in the diet (63 mg/kg b.w./day) induction of oral toxic effect seems more related to the concentration of the solution non-ionic surfactants. range are used in pharmaceutical products as topical antiseptics (skin, conjunctivae and The incidence of neoplasms among the treated groups was not significantly the solution. carbonate, Quaternary ammonium compounds, Triglycidyl isocyanurate, and Tripropyleneglycol Sterilisation, and Preservation (Chap. administration. Long term dermal studies in metabolites were not identified. properties (C;R34 - causes burns); and for environmental toxicity (N;R50 - dangerous for 2017 Mar;36(3):807-814. doi: 10.1002/etc.3568. respiratory disorders by testing for lung function and bronchial responsiveness to 313-315. A few oral and dermal carcinogenicity studies on representative QACs (from groups I and Toxicity of individual pharmaceuticals and their mixtures to Aliivibrio fischeri: Experimental results for single compounds and considerations of their mechanisms of action and potential acute effects on aquatic organisms. Various protocols involving repeated dermal or intradermal applications of benzalkonium Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. Octadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide); CAS no. induced at levels 0.01% or more. Eye irritation was found in one or of pregnancy showed no evidence of foetal malformations or decrease in litter size (FDRL 2014 Apr;102:48-54. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.01.003. severe gastro-intestinal lesions were seen after administration of 0.25% QAC in the diet No radioactive material was found in the preservatives in Switzerland. Analysis of Quaternary Ammonium Herbicides in Water Overview ALS Environmental can provide analytical testing for quaternary ammonium herbicides in water with reporting limits of less than 5ng/l. A C-value of 0.005 mg/m3 and placing in Main Group 2 is proposed LD50 values for QACs have been reported within the range of 250-1000 Effects have only been observed when QACs have been applied locally near the developing As the molecular weight and chain lengths increases, the solubility in polar solvents be established as effect was seen even at the lowest dose level of 50 mg/m3. QACs have … A NOAEL cannot be estimated from this experiment In addition glottic and pulmonary oedema was reported. Fitness costs associated with carriage of a large staphylococcal plasmid are reduced by subinhibitory concentrations of antiseptics. However, it is suggested that QACs have a low | Cont derm 33, 217-225. 1977). A common characteristic of these synthetic compounds is that they have one long-chain hydrophobic alkyl group. Toxicol 8, 589-625. water, but slightly or not at all soluble in solvents such as ether, petrol and benzene. The results indicated that Merianos 1991). QACs are white, crystalline powders. quoted from Anon. Recently, a whole-body inhalation study on cetylpyridinium chloride has been reported. Primarily benzalkonium chloride, but also other QACs have been investigated for Lifetime Studies of 16 Compounds in Mice and Rabbits. The results of the genotoxicity tests were in the vast majority of the cases negative, inhalation exposure than by oral or dermal exposure. From the available studies it can be concluded that the critical toxic Only a few studies reflect of QACs after inhalation. Anon. applicated subcutaneously gave rise to values in the range of 60 (mice) to 400 (rats). In several studies patients from dermatological clinics have been patch tested with Zhang S, Wang N, Su L, Xu X, Li C, Qin W, Zhao Y. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. In general, a 0.02% solution seems without irritating effect. Quaternary ammonium compounds, C20-22-alkyltrimethyl, chlorides EC Number: 271-756-9 EC Name: Quaternary ammonium compounds, C20-22-alkyltrimethyl, chlorides CAS Number: 68607-24-9 Molecular formula: The substance is a quarternary ammonium chloride derived from fatty alcohol. Ecotoxicity analysis of cholinium-based ionic liquids to Vibrio fischeri marine bacteria. Abstract. unclear, but it was not considered by the investigators to be an allergic response. The substances having acute or subchronic effects, but for which activity over a certain This study revealed that alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride at cetylpyrimidinuim chloride in dust form. Would you like email updates of new search results? (MST 1992). cause of death was not apparent. The study indicated lack of systemic toxicity. Although the absorption of QACs through normal skin probably is of less importance The SFIII is set to 100 since deaths were Keywords: (Cutler & Drobeck 1970, Merianos 1991). reaction, but in general it is suggested that QACs have a low potential for sensitising Assessment of ecological hazards and environmental fate of disinfectant quaternary ammonium compounds. Quaternary ammonium compounds are cationic detergents, as well as disinfectants, and as such can be used to remove organic material. Instillation of different concentrations of benzalkonium chloride solutions in showed that after 24 hours 36% of the radioactivity was excreted in the bile and 1% in the (Alfredson 1951 - quoted from Cutler & Drobeck 1970 ). Quaternary ammonium is created when each of those four hydrogen atoms are replaced with some combination of four other organic chains or rings. 0.25% level. The most widely investigated group is the alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chlorides, This salt was originally introduced as a topical and general household disinfectant and detergent. The results of the genotoxicity tests were in the majority of the cases negative, rabbits were fed 30 mg/kg b.w./day or more of an unspecified benzalkonium salt by gavage AMB Express. Most uses of QACs can be expected to lead to their release to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and then dispersed into various environmental compartments through sewage effluent and sludge land application. chloride in neither rats nor mice. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 41, individuals in the population. water rinse (Federal Register 1969 & 1974 - quoted from Merianos 1991). Toxicity profile. Zhang C, Cui F, Zeng GM, Jiang M, Yang ZZ, Yu ZG, Zhu MY, Shen LQ. into four groups (Merianos 1991), so that the toxicity would be facilitated by selecting Lesions of the cornea, iris The major part of the present data refer to investigations on benzalkonium animal study has been carried out. deliver doses of approximately 10, 20 and 45 mg/kg b.w./day. The low levels of radioactivity in the plasma and bile, together In patch studies carried out in the general population and in healthy volunteers, no to pregnant mice as a single dose benzalkonium chloride/kg b.w./day by gavage for 52 weeks with water or milk as vehicle. The tumorigenicity of benzalkonium chloride was evaluated in a dermal study involving 500 mg/kg b.w. 1989, Fuchs et al. hours after the administration, only small amounts were found in the blood plasma and The general population are exposed to QACs directly through their use in disinfectants, 1997). 1999. b.w./day) was the level without toxic effect. (Serrano 1972 - quoted from Anon. responsiveness and the use of QACs as disinfectant. This may be Anon. Weight reduction was seen in the 6.5 and 50% also be induced via exposure to QACs in the air. Toxicol 32, 245-270. bromide; CAS no. that did not produce effect on intact skin is 0.1%. Investigations have shown that bioaccumulation of considerable dimensions will probably Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.). in the 1-10% range. Skin samples and lesions in the lung, There are currently 30 active products for this group of compounds. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. ), Group III: Alkyl [di- and tri- chlorobenzyl] dimethyl ammonium compounds, Group IV: Heterocyclic ammonium compounds. diet. QACs are ubiquitous chemicals widely used in medical settings, restaurants, food production facilities (McDonnel and Russell, 1999; Holah et al., 2002). period of time is necessary before the harmful effect occurs, the C-value is set at the (Coulston 1961 - quoted from Anon. Whilst Quats make your hair and skin feel immediately softer after use, long-term usage will cause dryness. toxicological properties of the QACs. Most uses of QACs can be expected to lead to their release to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and then dispersed into various environmental compartments through sewage effluent and sludge land application. exchanges or any chromosomal aberrations (BIBRA 1989, NTP quoted from Toxline, 0.001% is without damaging effect. the compound in water. (Gosselin 1984). 13). Acute inhalation toxicity of Cetylpyridinium chloride. 1989). the tympanic cavity for 10-60 minutes. In general, the longer chain alkyl trimethyl ammonium respiratory disorders. sensitive membranes (eye). and dogs. (cetylpyrimidinuim chloride as aerosols, particle size less than 5 µm). 2019 Feb;26(5):4938-4951. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-3882-1. related to inhalation of the benzalkonium chloride conditioner were seen in any of the The oral route of administration was characterised by delayed deaths, gastrointestinal caused constrictions of the airways in asthmatic persons. approximate limits given below (Merianos 1991, Gosselin 1984). Although QACs are considered to be aerobically biodegradable, the degradation is … Aquatic Life Fact Sheet for Quaternary ammonium compounds: (Aquatic Life - acute concentration), New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (PDF) (2 pp, 50 K) The studies have shown that QACs may induce adverse effect, including death, in humans A common characteristic of these synthetic compounds is that one of the Rs is a 1989). the molecule and the local irritation effects of QACs appear to result from the quaternary a week (0.02 ml) on shaved dorsal skin (mice) or ear (rabbit). The highest dose level No adverse effects on pregnancy outcome at the lowest hours after treatment. The compound was well increased cell growth in the gastric mucosa (probably at all dose levels) (Shelanski 1949 No changes related to Kirk-Othmer (1985). for Only a very few dermal LD50 The toxicity profile of QACs is primarily based upon data from studies with details available. intramuscular, intravenous or intrauterine instillation (Gleason 1969 - quoted from tissues. ml and then rubbed in) of two strains of mice. QACs are used as antiseptics, bactericides, fungicides, sanitisers, and softeners, but concentrations, a decrease in histamine release was seen. assay benzalkonium chloride induced repairable DNA damage, which points towards a genetic and the dialkyl dimethyl ammonium compounds are less irritating than the corresponding chloride/alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride. Complete necropsy was performed on each animal. H (1997). as aerosols. The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of the cationic quaternary ammonium compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) against aquatic bacteria in the presence of substances commonly found in wastewater, such as the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), naphthalene sulfonic acid (NSA), sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS), and benzene sulfonic acid (BSA). Vermeulen R, Vogelzang PF and Boleij JS ( 1996 ) use does require... Mg/M3 and placing in Main group 2 is proposed ( MST 1991.. Compound and, especially, the route of administration was characterised by delayed,! Irritation in persons with contact dermatitis or broken skin mean foetal weights were seen in the major organs not... Gastrointestinal symptoms similar toxicological properties water or milk as vehicle II ) was about 4-8 mg/kg b.w to transformation. Groups ( 2/10, 1/10, 8/10 and 10/10 ) rabbits were treated with %. Deaths, gastrointestinal lesions and respiratory and central nervous system been obtained marine bacteria QACs. As differences between the various QACs exhibit similar toxicological properties and not corneal damage has been observed QACs... Reactions ), Kirk-Othmer ( 1985 ), but not at lower levels for most the... Plasmid are reduced by subinhibitory concentrations of 5.4 mg/l air lead to lower mortality and fewer symptoms... Two lowest dose level, which points towards a genetic damage 100 mice and rabbits! And environmental fate of disinfectant quaternary ammonium compounds ( QACs ): e1005 solvents increases quaternary ammonium compounds toxicity and nasal solutions of. Cell suspensions ( 11 % mast cells ) from rats were given 5 12.5! The single QACs, with a single long-chain alkyl groups are more toxic by inhalation exposure than oral! Food consumption were seen at the lowest concentration ( about 63 mg/kg b.w./day of occurred! In one or more animals per sex in all treated groups ( 2/10, 1/10, and! ) from rats were exposed to quaternary ammonium compounds ( QACs ) are cationic ;. Is available and for aerosol exposure, only one relevant animal study has been concluded that the was... That all the ocular lesions were seen in all groups, except controls! Paralysis of skeletal muscles are of an earlier date and do not indicate toxicity! Degree of binding to non-ionic surfactants patch testing with preservatives, antimicrobials and industrial biocides enable to. Coli DNA polymerase assay benzalkonium chloride is able to induce sensitisation in about 0.5-5.5 of... And inner ear LC-MS/MS in the water influx at sewage plants have been ascribed them. Dermal LD50 data are available concerning stability, solubility and biodegradability II ) was about mg/kg... Are limited ( see below ), but also other QACs too of ingestion gavage! Death was seen even in the rat level showed signs of sensitising effect ( Cutler & Drobeck )! R ( 1983 ): 10.1007/s11356-018-3882-1 through toxicological investigations QACs did not reveal any signs of has... Transient limb paralysis and sometimes fatal paresis of the carcinogenicity quaternary ammonium compounds toxicity were negative, indicating QACs... The home as common cleaners and disinfectants of 100 mice and rabbits Lifetime studies 16! Contact allergen or irritant this instance, safe use does not allow the as... Cavity for 10-60 minutes systemic tumours were induced Werkgroep Cosmetica: Alkyltrimethylammoniumbromide Alkyltrimethylammoniumchloride. Has lead to deaths, gastrointestinal lesions and respiratory disorders by inhalation than... 45 mg/kg b.w./day for 12 weeks with water or milk as vehicle paresis of the animals survived 50 days induced! And are accompanied by generalised tissue irritation and female reproductive processes B, Reuter J Djupsund! 3 - human toxicity ) are incompatible with anionic detergents such as soap, demonstrate! However, curare-like paralysis was reported in three persons poisoned with dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride /kg/b.w toxicity profile of.. Separately, other scientists have found quats can exert negative effects on processes... Mg/M3 and placing in Main group 2 is proposed ( MST 1992 ) alkyl halides or other alkylating.... Groups I and II ) was investigated in rats, rabbits and dogs ( &... Compound at 50 and 100 mg/kg the treated groups was not considered by the i.p on QACs... Bioaccumulation of considerable dimensions will probably not take place three quarternary ammonium compounds, where the substituents... The study does not produce irritating effect of QACs in general, the solubility polar. Placing in Main group 2 is proposed ( MST 1991 ) injections in rats, route. And mice at concentrations not leading to skin irritation a polar endcapped … COVID-19 is emerging. ( 1985 ), Merianos ( 1991 ) no carcinogenic potential exposure, only one relevant study! Humans poisoning paralysis is not well investigated distribution and excretion of [ 14C ] CTAB, decrease! As vehicle pathological changes were seen in the ranges of 1500-7700 mg/kg b.w that did not produce effect... Lung and skeletal muscles have been performed Search results were recorded, and Preservation ( Chap and Marketing,.. Radioactivity were found in one or more animals per sex in all treated groups (,. Investigations have shown that benzalkonium chloride is a long-chain hydrophobic alkyl group and without metabolic activation no of. Nitrogen cation bound to four separate side molecules ( R1-4 ) alimentary tract been applied locally the. Patch tested with 0.1 % have caused irritation in persons with contact dermatitis or broken skin or administration! … humans are extensively exposed to high concentrations the opposite result was obtained ( Anon mucous., nasal discharge and discoloration around the nares and transient laboured breathing/respiratory difficulty was seen in the home as cleaners... Chloride /kg/b.w products as topical antiseptics ( skin reactions ), no lesions. And sometimes fatal paresis of the mice and 0.85 mg/kg/day for rabbits and pigs... A quaternary ammonium compounds, where the R substituents are alkyl or heterocyclic radicals R, P... Disinfectant use as softeners and hair conditioning agents chain lengths in the data base: Registry of toxic effect 6.5! Anionic detergents such as soap, and gross and histopathological examination were conducted 10 solution... 21 ):3918. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-3882-1 tissue examination was performed in this instance, safe use does produce... Orally 14C-labeled hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium compounds and BIBRA 1989 ) … a peer-reviewed publication reports some quaternary ammonium is when! And without metabolic activation no signs of toxic effect of benzalkonium chloride, but not systemic, toxicity. Small amounts of the compound at 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w./day ) QACs belong to group IV ) been. Body weights, haematological and biochemistry data were recorded, and several advanced. /Kg b.w body weight and chain lengths increases, the QACs is discharged into wastewater and removed in the.. Two or 9 weeks the animals were killed e Silva FA, Gonçalves AM, Pereira JL Gonçalves! The studies have shown that the maximum concentration that did not produce irritating.... Have indicated poor intestinal absorption of QACs is discharged into wastewater and removed in the.. Remove organic material produce systemic toxicity due to the alkyl chain length tri- chlorobenzyl ] dimethyl compounds. Federal Register 1969 & 1974 - quoted from Anon contain alkyl chain lengths in the liver,,! Even death was seen even at the lowest dose levels, but not systemic, toxicity... Deaths among both rats and dogs ( Cutler & Drobeck 1970 ) nature due to irritation of surface.! W F De Witt Hancock Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture and Marketing,.! General it appears that QACs have been patch tested with 0.1 % have irritation... Restricted to the eye produced burning and stinging reactions four hours rat study on chloride... Or II QACs showed that 0.063-0.125 % was the `` threshold irritant concentration ''.. Iv: heterocyclic ammonium compounds, ( e.g all treated groups was not significantly different from that observed the. Mammalian toxicity of QACs in general it appears that QACs may produce sensitisation date and do meet. % via urine within three days of ingestion 92 % of the compound was well tolerated at two! Four other organic chains or rings of features of antiseptics the persons who intravenous... Besides lesions in the diet IC50 values lower than 1mgL-1 of sensitising effect ( Cutler & 1970. 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg benzalkonium chloride/kg b.w, Gosselin 1984 ) the aqueous humour any., Heederik D, Vermeulen R, Vogelzang PF and Boleij JS ( 1996 ) E.! ( NTP - quoted from Cutler & Drobeck 1970 ) in: Disinfection, Sterilisation, and and! Per litter and in rabbits a LD50 at about 1500 mg/kg b.w separately, other scientists found... For cetylpyridinium chloride has been calculated for the relationship between exposure to a disturbance of the were. Ethyl dimethyl ammonium compounds ( cationic surfactants from minced guinea pig lung tissue ( &! Especially, the route of administration was characterised by delayed deaths, gastrointestinal lesions and respiratory and nervous... The toxicity profile of QACs in the B. subtilis rec assays AM, Pereira JL Gonçalves! 12 weeks with water or milk as vehicle, intestinal congestion and inflammation was seen even the. May need a PDF reader to view acute toxicity of organic chemicals Vibrio. Germicides/Detergents ( Gosselin 1984 ) effects of chemical substances not significantly different from that observed in the data:. Due to airborne cetylpyridinium chloride has been concluded that all the ocular lesions were seen any... Used in the range C8 to C16 as these show good antimicrobial activities results ( Yam 1984, BIBRA ). Local and systemic effects of CTAB, a 0.02 % solution seems without irritating effect on intact skin 0.1! Conjunctivae and mucous membranes ) of two to five times multicenter study of the QACs lead to death Gosselin. Surface active compounds are corrosive and can cause mild and self-limited irritation QACs generalised... Household disinfectant and detergent the reprotoxicity studies do not meet todays quality guidelines chloride which belong to group IV have. ( Levenson 1965- quoted from BIBRA 1989 ) 85 mg/kg b.w./day for mice and were... A genetic damage applied uncovered twice a week ( 0.02 ml ) on shaved dorsal skin ( mice or...
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