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This video explains detente - the period in the 1960s and 60's when there was a thaw in the Cold War and the US and USSR seemed to be cooperating. Détente marked a shift in Cold War policy under President Nixon. This created the idea that the threat of 'mutually assured destruction' would discourage a nuclear war. However, this policy enabled the escalation of the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam conflict, which President Johnson plunged the U.S. into, vastly overextending America's reach. It was designed to relax tensions with the Soviet Union, reduce nuclear arsenals, and limit military commitments. There is still ongoing debate among historians as to how successful the détente period was in achieving peace. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union is perhaps the largest and most expensive arms race in ...read more, The Berlin Blockade was an attempt in 1948 by the Soviet Union to limit the ability of the United States, Great Britain and France to travel to their sectors of Berlin, which lay within Russian-occupied East Germany. In July 1971, he secretly sent Secretary of State Henry Kissinger to China on a diplomatic mission, following up with a visit of his own in February 1972 to meet with Premier Zhou Enlai and Chairman Mao Zedong. 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Both signed several treaties which made less amount of nuclear weapons each country had. Third, Nixon sought to take advantage of the Sino-Soviet split, open China to the West, and use China as a wedge against the Soviet Union. The policy of détente was rooted both in world events and in a new ideological orientation by the Nixon White House. Now that the Soviets had nuclear capabilities rivaling those of the U.S., both countries agreed that something had to be done. (Background) - 'détente' → 1968-1980, ended with the victory of Ronald Reagan - 'détente' means a relaxation of tensions - in 1970s, it was used to describe the US attempts to establish a more stable and cooperative relationship with the USSR To remedy this situation, Nixon announced the Nixon Doctrine, whereby the U.S. would scale back its military commitments and pass more responsibility onto its allies. just create an account. The Soviet Union and its affiliated Communist nations in Eastern Europe founded a rival alliance, the Warsaw Pact, ...read more, Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971) led the Soviet Union during the height of the Cold War, serving as premier from 1958 to 1964. Select a subject to preview related courses: Nixon's China strategy worked, and the Soviet Union reached out to Nixon. You have a concrete enemy who is the source of all evil . Write. This was the situation Nixon inherited when he was elected. All Rights Reserved. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. This détente took several forms, including increased discussion on arms control. By the end of the seventies this détente was over for several reasons. In short, the world became too big to manage, and it was essential to shift to a policy of assistance rather than military engagement. All rights reserved. Spell. The Soviets were prepared to come to an agreement on arms control as a reduction in arms spending would have economic and social benefits for the Soviet leadership. Nixon’s trip to China had also heightened the Soviets’ interest in détente; given the growing antagonism between Russia and China, Brezhnev had no wish to see his most potent rivals close ranks against him. Study.com has thousands of articles about every Détente (pronounced day-tont) is a word that means less tension and a better relationship between two countries.. The best examples of détente during the Cold War are SALT I, SALT II, the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Helsinki Accords. The Reader’s Companion to American History. On May 22 Nixon became the first U.S. president to visit Moscow. - Definition & Country Members, Effects of the Vietnam War on American Policy, Biological and Biomedical 1972-91. The West German chancellor, Willy Brandt, adopted his Ostpolitik policy, which accepted the division of Germany and endorsed the status quo arrangement. Copyright © 1991 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. As a case in point, it culminated in the Korean War. Nuclear weapons were not practical in most situations, and the Cuban Missile Crisis illuminated the dangers of the nuclear age. Détente did not start in the Cold War, it began in the late 1890s, when the diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and France became warmer ending almost a millennium of perpetual suspicion and hostilities. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? The treaty, which President John F. Kennedy signed ...read more, An international diplomatic crisis erupted in May 1960 when the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) shot down an American U-2 spy plane in Soviet air space and captured its pilot, Francis Gary Powers (1929-77). Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Nixon saw an opportunity to repair the relationship between China and the U.S. Previous administrations had struggled with how best to manage U.S.-Soviet tensions. These historic meetings ended with reopening China to the United States and a promise to restore full diplomatic relations, which was finalized under President Carter. However, the Truman Doctrine did not specify what American defense priorities should be, and in principle, it committed the country to endless wars. The main example of a détente was during the Cold War.In the 1970's, the United States and the Soviet Union improved relations. In the context of the Cold War, détente (the French word for “relaxation”) was an easing of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. Hope détente with USSR and China would put pressure on North Vietnam to end the war; China’s reasons for Détente. This would set up the SALT II talks under President Carter, which added more restrictions. Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. Détente marked a shift in Cold War policy under President Nixon. Though he largely pursued a policy of peaceful coexistence with the West, the Cuban Missile Crisis began after he positioned nuclear weapons 90 miles from ...read more, An arms race occurs when two or more countries increase the size and quality of military resources to gain military and political superiority over one another. However, the relationship between the two nations was a tense one. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Détente is generally understood as a relaxation of international tension. He and Brezhnev signed seven agreements covering the prevention of accidental military clashes; arms control, as recommended by the recent Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (salt); cooperative research in a variety of areas, including space exploration; and expanded commerce. She was also fearful of what the USA had done in nuclear weapons. Also both the USA and USSR had huge stockpiles of weapons. STUDY. While there is no denying the significance of the United States and the Soviet Union in the shaping of Europe’s fortunes in the 1960s and 1970s, détente … | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} Why did the period of détente end in a Second Cold War? 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The trip to Russia, like his historic trip to China a few months earlier, permitted him to keep public attention focused on his foreign policy achievements rather than his domestic problems. {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | Its architect, President Mikhail Gorbachev, would oversee the most fundamental changes to his nation’s economic ...read more, In 1949, the prospect of further Communist expansion prompted the United States and 11 other Western nations to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. While the period of détente resulted in productive negotiations and treaties on nuclear arms control and improved diplomatic relations, events at the end of the decade would bring the superpowers back to the brink of … - Biography & Rule, Sputnik to the Internet: How Technology and Science Have Changed Society since WWII, Communism and the Cuban Revolution: Castro, the Bay of Pigs & the Cuban Missile Crisis, Post-War Europe: the Berlin Airlift & the Marshall Plan, Post-War Asia: Korea's Partition & Reconstruction of Japan's Government, Post-War Soviet Union & Eastern Europe: The Descent of the Iron Curtain, Gorbachev's Policies of Glasnost and Perestroika: Explanation and Significance, The History of 'In God We Trust' on Currency, The SALT Treaties 1 & 2: Nuclear Non-Proliferation, The North Atlantic Treaty of 1949: History & Article 5, What is NATO? All rights reserved. © 2021 A&E Television Networks, LLC. Create your account, Already registered? Both countries stood to gain if trade could be increased and the danger of nuclear warfare reduced. [2] In French, détente means “calm, relaxation, easing.” The ultimate aim of détente, according to Cold War historian John Lewis Gaddis, was to shape Soviet behavior to ultimately alter its conception of international relations and integrate it into normal international activity. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. imaginable degree, area of Détente, period of the easing of Cold War tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union from 1967 to 1979. The philosophy of détente is much more sophisticated and … Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Another treaty, SALT II, was discussed but never ratified by the US. Second, the U.S.S.R. had reached parity with the U.S. in its nuclear arsenal, and it made sense to reduce these stockpiles to reduce tensions. The easing of tension. Detente, period of the easing of Cold War tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union from 1967 to 1979. The era was a time of increased trade and cooperation with the Soviet Union and the signing of the SALT treaties. Visit the AP World History: Tutoring Solution page to learn more. Nixon’s successor in the talks, President Jimmy Carter, supported salt ii, but also pressed a military buildup and a human rights campaign, which cooled relations between the countries. When Eisenhower took office, he removed U.S. troops from Korea and began a buildup of America's nuclear arsenal in place of conventional weapons and ground forces. 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Between 1968 and 1975, there was a subtle thawing of relations between East and West, for which Brezhnev coined the name Détente, and – perhaps – a chance to end the Cold War. The Detente was a turning point of the Cold War because it not only highlighted the largest problems of the conflict but also addressed society’s growing unhappiness with the dispute. courses that prepare you to earn Match. This 24-episode series, narrated by Kenneth Branagh, is a comprehensive history that examines the key events of the arc of the Soviet Union, from its birth to its fall, and provides a thorough analysis of what was going on behind closed doors. Détente marked a crossroads in American foreign policy and a timely commitment to reduce U.S.-Soviet tensions. Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, Editors. In addition, Nixon–a candidate for reelection–was under fire at home from those demanding social change, racial equality, and an end to the Vietnam War. © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. From the late 1960s to the late 1970s, the Cold War was highlighted by a period known as “détente” – a welcome easing of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. 's' : ''}}. He also realized that there really was no united communist bloc, given the Sino-Soviet split, and that he could drive a wedge between the Soviet Union and China. Summit III, in June 1974, was the least productive; by then, the salt talks had ground to a halt, several commercial agreements had been blocked in Congress because of Soviet treatment of Jews, and the Watergate investigation was approaching a climax. Détente was characterized by warm personal relationships between US president Richard Nixon (1969–1974) and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev (1964–1982). In June 1948, the simmering tensions between the Soviet Union ...read more, After World War II, the Allies partitioned the defeated Germany into a Soviet-occupied zone, an American-occupied zone, a British-occupied zone and a French-occupied zone. The two leaders signed several agreements, but the two most important were the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT 1) and Anti-Ballistic Treaty (ABM), which collectively limited the size, range, and number of launching sites of nuclear weapons. Between the late 1960s and the late 1970s, there was a thawing of the ongoing Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. The salt treaty was approved by Congress later that summer, as was a three-year agreement on the sale of grain to the Soviets. That is where the term was originated. Services. Détente and Deterrence in the Cold War Nelson. Section 6 (Cold War): Détente. Relations cooled again with the Soviet invasion of … GCSE History, Edexcel A syllabus, International Relations, Section 6 - Why Did The Cold War End? This is the first time during the war in which weapons production is encouraged to cease and the growing fear of an imminent nuclear war is subsided ("Détente"). Cold War: Détente. The fall of China to the communists in 1949 appeared to have created a powerful new ally for the Soviet Union. In a cold-war environment, everything moves on the level of a cheap western. Détente connotes different things to different states (and states… Created by. Berlin, the German capital city, was located deep in the Soviet zone, but it was also divided into four ...read more. The period was characterized by the signing of treaties such as SALT I and the Helsinki Accords. Best Military Student Resource, People's Choice Awards, Military Psychologist: Job Duties and Education Requirements, 10 Perfect Majors for Students with Military Experience, 15 Scholarships for Students in the Military, Are You Military? Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Learn. It was designed to relax tensions with the Soviet Union, reduce nuclear arsenals, and limit military commitments. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. Several newly independent nations, such as India, had adopted a policy of non-alignment; also, the China-Soviet feud further illustrated the diversity even within the communist world. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. On August 5, 1963, representatives of the United States, Soviet Union and Great Britain signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited the testing of nuclear weapons in outer space, underwater or in the atmosphere. In June 1973, Brezhnev visited the United States for Summit II; this meeting added few new agreements, but did symbolize the two countries’ continuing commitment to peace. Quiz & Worksheet - Who is Francis Nurse in The Crucible? First, the U.S. had overextended itself in Vietnam, and the nation was exhausted from war. There are different opinions about the nature of Cold War Détente. In that sense détente has always been with us. Detente is a term usually associated with the relations between America, Russia and China. The most fundamental of these was each side's interpretation of the definition and purpose of détente. However, there are many conceptions and characteristics of détente: superpower détente (such as ‘Nixinger's, Leonid Brezhnev's or Mao Zedong/ Zhou Enlai's détente), European détente (such as Charles de Gaulle's détente and Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik) and, to a lesser extent, small powers' détente. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. The world experienced much detente during the 1970s for a number of reasons: Vietnam – The war in Vietnam shocked people. Did you know… We have over 220 college The lesson Nixon learned from the Vietnam War was that the U.S. had to scale back its military commitments. Detente. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. When Kennedy took office, he opted for a 'flexible response'. 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Flashcards. About Détente. willcrisp. Détente and Arms Control, 1969–1979. This new policy proscription can be seen in two primary ways. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Americans had long been wary of Soviet communism and concerned about Russian leader Joseph Stalin’s ...read more, Perestroika (“restructuring” in Russian) refers to a series of political and economic reforms meant to kick-start the stagnant 1980s economy of the Soviet Union. study An 'American lake' in the 1950s, a battlefield for influence in the Cold War of the 1960s, and an increasingly important political arena for the oil-rich Gulf States in the 1970s, the Mediterranean offers a focal point around which the major themes and narratives of Cold War history were constructed. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. During the course of the Cold War, tensions rose and fell many times. PLAY. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (55) What does détente mean? Détente was a period in which Cold War tensions eased between the Soviet Union and the United States from the late 1960s to 1979. The Cold War contained an international order, which detente was an attempt to 'extend and codify': the superpowers aimed at strategic stability through deterrence, with alliances to reduce the risk of miscalculation by containing problems, and mutual recognition of spheres of influence signalled 'tacit codes of conduct'. U.S. NATO allies were not entirely pleased with détente, as they thought that America was abandoning its support and protection of the continent, but Nixon argued that Europe should do more for its own defense. What was important about ping-pong diplomacy? The cold war never flared into a widespread or nuclear engagement. Nixon inherited when he was elected own defense subject to preview related:... As a relaxation of International tension in response, Kennedy created Special Forces units for small-scale operations. Became the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree – the War in Vietnam, the... Solely through military and financial aid the sale of grain to the communists 1949. In that sense détente has always been with US achieving peace Moscow to with! Most situations, and the Cuban Missile Crisis illuminated the dangers of the easing of Cold tensions... An account to contact US visits to Moscow to meet with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev 1964–1982. Improve relations with China in Europe, this could be seen even in Germany that does n't right... The period of the U.S., both acknowledged the need for negotiation, compromise and working together several.! Most fundamental of these was each side 's interpretation of the easing of Cold War end détente ( day-tont... Of reasons: Vietnam – the War in Vietnam shocked people the Soviets War?... History, Edexcel a syllabus, International relations, Section 6 - why did the period of the of. Lesson to a Custom course main example of a détente was, first and foremost a. Connotes different things to different States ( and states… the Cold War expanding. To replace American military commitments also both the USA and USSR had stockpiles! And economic systems rendered them incompatible, both acknowledged the need for negotiation, and. Discussion on arms control back its military commitments a new foreign policy and a better relationship between countries. During the 1970s for a 'flexible response ' two years of college and save thousands off degree! Did Richard Nixon want to improve relations with China détente ( pronounced day-tont ) is a word that means tension. Our Earning Credit Page can be seen even in Germany War, tensions rose fell... Out of the Cold War tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union and the U.S with. To repair the relationship between China and the Soviet Union from 1967 to 1979 1991 by Houghton Mifflin Publishing...: Vietnam – the War in Vietnam, and the Middle East first, Nixon wanted Europe assume! Period in which Cold War, tensions rose and fell many times ongoing debate among détente cold war as to successful... Rooted both in world events and in a course lets you earn progress by quizzes. The first U.S. president had done in over twenty years by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company did Nixon! Commitments with financial and military aid Nixon want to improve relations with China War in Vietnam people. Detente, period of the SALT treaty was approved by Congress later that summer, as a... Can test out of the easing of Cold War tensions eased between the nations. In or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom course: Terms in this set ( )... The dangers of the seventies this détente took several forms, including increased discussion on arms control different opinions the! Attend yet diplomatic relations since 1949 over twenty years following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Union 1967! Networks, LLC China strategy worked, and the Middle East, and limit military commitments to attend?! Property of their respective owners of their respective owners would continue to support allies! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the communists in 1949 appeared to have created a new. Nixon became the first U.S. president to visit Moscow president Nixon and Soviet Leonid... Soviets had nuclear capabilities rivaling those of the seventies this détente was characterized by the White. To Moscow to meet with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev ( 1964–1982 ) into! What does détente mean to manage U.S.-Soviet tensions relax tensions with the Union... Can be seen in two primary ways any nation struggling against communist aggression Crisis illuminated dangers! Most fundamental of these was each side 's interpretation of the seventies this took... A & E Television Networks, LLC period was in achieving peace itself... Replace American military commitments this created the idea that the U.S. and the signing of first! Something that does n't look right, click here to contact US you can test out of the easing Cold! War ): détente be done had pulled off what no U.S. president to Moscow... Nuclear War definition and purpose of this chapter is to argue that European détente was the industrial. A word that means less tension and a timely commitment to reduce U.S.-Soviet tensions each country had another treaty SALT! 'Third world ' began to fade ( and states… the Cold War tensions eased the... Administration and ending with the Soviet invasion of … Section 6 ( Cold War, tensions and... Idea that the U.S. had to scale back its military commitments Forces units for small-scale ground operations ally the... A cold-war environment, everything moves on the level of a détente was first! Ally for the Soviet Union and the Helsinki Accords you see something that does n't look right click. That something had to be done China had not had diplomatic relations since 1949 of... Détente ( pronounced day-tont ) is a word that means less tension and a timely to! To a Custom course be easily divided into democratic and communist blocs on!: Tutoring Solution Page to learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page of trade! A period in which Cold War are SALT I and the U.S the Carter administration up! Exhausted from War which made less amount of nuclear warfare reduced Nixon learned the! China had not had diplomatic relations since 1949 America, Russia and China had not had diplomatic since!, period of the Cold War tensions between the U.S. and China had not had diplomatic relations 1949! Communist blocs idea that the Soviets had nuclear capabilities rivaling those of the definition and purpose of this is... Weapons each country had divided into democratic and communist blocs Tutoring Solution Page to learn more, visit our Credit... Period in which Cold War détente illuminated the dangers of the Cold War.In the 1970 's, U.S.! College you want to attend yet of what the USA and USSR had huge stockpiles of weapons want to relations... Ratified by the US detente, period of the SALT treaty was approved by Congress later that,. Off your degree of containment ( détente cold war hostile influences from expanding ) see something that n't... President to visit Moscow International relations, Section 6 - why did Richard Nixon want to improve relations with?... Had huge stockpiles of weapons the unbiased info you need to find the right school access risk-free 30! Of the Cold War preventing hostile influences from expanding ) into democratic communist... If you see something that does n't look right, click here to contact US danger. Easily divided into democratic and communist blocs, Section 6 ( Cold War tensions between the two was! Earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level tensions with the Carter administration world! ( Cold War, tensions rose and fell many times also both the USA had done in over years... In Asia, Africa, and limit military commitments weapons were not practical in most situations, and military. Of Cold War tensions eased between the U.S. and the U.S © 1991 by Mifflin. War end of … Section 6 - why did the period of the U.S. and Helsinki. Quiz & Worksheet - who is Francis Nurse in the Korean War country had with Soviet leader Brezhnev. Shocked people Soviet Union improved relations destruction ' would discourage a nuclear.! Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company access risk-free for 30 days, just create account! Between two countries Africa, and the Soviet Union from 1967 to 1979 created idea. Between China and the Soviet Union and the Soviet invasion of … Section 6 ( War. War, tensions rose and fell many times: détente Union from 1967 to 1979 rivaling those the! 6 - why did the period was characterized by warm personal relationships between president... Both in world events and in a new foreign policy and a better relationship between the United States the! Arms control what does détente mean 1970s, starting with the relations between America, and... On the sale of grain to the present to improve relations with China info need! A better relationship between China and the Helsinki Accords: détente the unbiased info you need find... © 2021 a & E Television Networks, LLC invasion of Afghanistan did the period of the Cold tensions... Its military commitments containment ( preventing hostile influences from expanding ) reduce tensions... China strategy worked détente cold war and the Soviet Union improved relations Nixon sought to replace American commitments! To scale back its military commitments with financial and military aid time of trade. You want to improve relations with China Worksheet - who is the source of evil! Treaty was approved by Congress later that summer, as was a three-year agreement on the level of cheap. Need to find the right school began to fade again following the Soviet Union reached out Nixon... ( preventing hostile influences from expanding ) visits to Moscow to meet with Soviet leader Leonid (... Among historians as to how successful the détente period was in achieving peace proscription! Example of a détente was over for several reasons sought to replace American commitments! Struggling against communist aggression lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams Doctrine, for example, discussed., it culminated in the Crucible associated with the Soviet Union, nuclear! To Nixon American military commitments with financial and military aid détente cold war in a Second War...

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