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Now that you have educated the new investigator on the concepts of class and individual characteristics of evidence, it is time to begin collecting the evidence that you had marked during the initial walk-through. D. Exonerate an innocent suspect. Fig 19-2 Striated tool mark • … Quintessentially, investigators use class characteristics to narrow the pattern found at a scene to specific and individual characteristics. : A questioned sample is compared to a known sample to determine if relevant to a crime. B. At the crime scene, you have completed the initial walk-through and are planning your collection of the evidence at the scene, when a new investigator approaches you and asks about the differences between individual and class characteristics of physical evidence. In addition to markings on the bullets, the magazine, firing pin, extractor, ejector, and breech face of a weapon may all impart class and individual markings to a cartridge case or primer. Explain in detail. Answer the following questions for each of your selections: How is it identified? Compared to the lower middle class, lower-class people have less of … B-BB reveals individual characteristics of this particular tool. Link a person to a crime with a high degree of certainty. Physical evidence is evidence that is found at a scene that can be physically held or touched. For example, given a box of gloves; each glove from that box will be the same. If evidence has individual characteristics, it. If the suspect has type B blood, he remains a suspect. Marks on surface B are grinding or manufacturer’s marks; BB is a nick in the edge of the tool. No two pieces of glass fracture in the same manner. T of F? If, however, the suspect’s blood is type A, he then is excluded as the source of the blood. Just like the middle and upper classes, the lower class can be divided into subsets: the working class, the working poor, and the underclass. Define the Following Terms: Class characteristics: General characteristics that determine a category of items or objects but cannot determine individuality. Line quality. The lower class is also referred to as the working class. “Class characteristics alone do not allow matches with a single suspect. However, when multiple types of class evidence associate one suspect with the crime and crime scene, the weight of that evidence can make for a stronger case, which is what happened to Wayne Williams. Physical evidence can be any material or object (see Table 2.1). DNA evidence may be obvious and collection of such objects as teeth, bone and hair is rather straightforward, though collection of evidence such as saliva or sweat or skin cells is more difficult. Same color, same texture, same material, same size. If a forensic scientist can piece together broke pieces of glass from a bottle that was used as a weapon, it has: The reliability of eye witness accounts can be affected by: A term that means supplying proof or evidence is: Evidence that has characteristics common to a group of similar objects is called _____ evidence. When a piece of glass taken from a crime scene and a piece of glass removed from a suspect’s broken headlight fit neatly together like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, the pieces share a common source. They result from design features and are therefore determined prior to manufacture. : Physical evidence is also known as direct evidence. Blue, yellow, white, and yellow-green fibers of various synthetic types were similar to fibers taken from Williams’s kitchen and backroom carpets, bedspread, throw rug, and car liner. Toolmarks A toolmark is defined as the impression left by the contact of a tool (or a similar object) onto a surface. The Significance of Helle Craft case is: A person can be convicted of murder without a body. Class evidence is material in a criminal investigation that can be linked with a group of people, but not a specific individual. The overriding principle in analyzing individual characteristics is that no two things are exactly alike. Matches at the individual level are called similarities, because in theory, there's no such thing as a perfect match. Explain. Hairs matching those of his dog also were found. Which of the following is NOT considered physical evidence? No two guns mark a bullet the same way. The most individualizing types of evidence are fingerprints and DNA, because they’re pretty much like snowflakes in that no two people have the same prints or, with the exception of identical twins, the same DNA. The variety of physical evidence is virtually unlimited, as is the uniqueness of the crime. Thus, while the class characteristics may be identical on bullets fired by two different weapons, the individual characteristics will be different. Thus even a popular shoe outsole design represents only a small subset of all manufactured shoes. Paint can be a type of forensic evidence, or evidence that can be utilized to solve a crime. Specifically, what are class characteristics of physical evidence? 19.Which of the following characteristics refers to properties of evidence that can be associated with a common source with an extremely high degree of certainty? Explain. Can a type of physical evidence be considered a class characteristic at one crime scene and an individual characteristic at another? Shoes come with thousands of different outsole designs and numerous sizes for each design. Similarly, evidence that possesses individual characteristics may be referred to as individual evidence. Known or control samples could come from: Which of the following is not true about the value of physical evidence? Provide 2 different examples that illustrate your explanation. This relationship can be used as evidence to prove that the footwear's owner was at the crime scene. Once these individual characteristics are narrowed down, they can be put into databases to find the perpetrator of a crime. The correspondence of combined class characteristics is valuable information, and its importance should not be understated. Which of the following would be considered individual evidence? T of F? Testimony. The most individualizing types of evidence are fingerprints and DNA, because they’re pretty much like snowflakes in that no two people have the same prints or, with the exception of identical twins, the same DNA. In the case against Wayne Williams, the sheer number of the pieces of class evidence made coincidence extremely unlikely. The FBI has created a database for examining class characteristics such as shoe and tire impressions, which can eventually be used to … b) A fingerprint will possess individual characteristics because they are specific to a person. If evidence has class characteristics, it. CLASS CHARACTERISTICS Class characteristics are measurable features of a specimen which indicate a restricted group source. These include caliber, number of lands and grooves, direction of twist of the lands and grooves, and widths of the lands and grooves. The odds that someone else left behind that particular combination of fibers and hair are astronomical. For example, if the bullet came from a .38 caliber handgun, every .38 caliber handgun on the planet is the possible murder weapon. Toolmarks examination is an important discipline of criminalistics . CLASS AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTIC EVIDENCE Class: a group of objects or persons with characteristic physical evidence common to it Examples include soil and hair Individual characteristics can be identified as having originated with a particular person or source Establishes individuality Examples include fingerprints and footprints If an evidence bullet and test bullets fired from a suspect firearm have the same class characteristics, the firearm examiner can conclude that the evidence bullet could have … T of F? If evidence has class characteristics, it. Explain in detail. : Testimonial evidence is generally much more reliable than physical evidence. This can consist of a gun that shot the victim or it can even be residue on the hands of the perpetrator. A handful of class evidence is statistically equal to a single fingerprint. Multiple fibers, 28 different types in all, were found on several of the victims. Differentiating Class and Individual Evidence, 10 Great Forensics Resources for Further Study. On bullets, the class characteristics are the rifling specifications of the barrel from which the bullet was fired. Evidence that can be linked to a unique, single, specific source is called _____ evidence. 1. This type of evidence may be used to narrow down a list of possible suspects. : Fingerprints would be considered individual characteristics. C. Have no evidential value. In combination with other evidence in a case, it can demonstrate that a limited number of people had all of the characteristics associated with evidence left by a perpetrator. a) Individual characteristics c) Dual Characteristics b) Group Characteristics d) Class characteristics 20.What is the first stage in crime scene investigation according to Crime Search Study of 2003? In the examination of objects of physical evidence, class characteristics are important because they can: asked May 4, 2017 in Criminal Justice by Vivian97. Class evidence can have probative value. Williams was convicted. Because the subset of shoes that has a particular set of class characteristics is small, class characteristics are very p… From there, DNA (an individual characteristic) from the suspect and DNA from the blood evidence are tested to determine conclusively whether they match. A-AA portion of the tool mark reveals the class characteristics (size and shape) of the tool. What must an investigator consider regarding the use of class characteristics as evidence in court? In general, all forms of evidence have class or individual characteristics. For handwriting analysis, 12 characteristics are taken into consideration by the experts. Hair analysis can reveal all but which of the following? Why or why not? Which of the following does not influence eye witness testimony? Paint chips or remnants can reveal a significant amount of information during forensic investigations . These fibers chemically and optically matched fibers taken from Williams’s home and cars. Also known as real evidence, _____ evidence can be tangible items that tend to prove some material fact. When the tool or object contacts the surface with sufficient force to create an indentation, the pattern of the tool is permanently reproduced onto that surface. The 12 characteristics of handwriting. Class characteristics are not unique to a particular object but place the particular bit of evidence into a group of objects. : Blood typing would be considered individual characteristic. How can class evidence be used to narrow a field of suspects? It can take on almost any form: as large as a building, as ﬂ eeting as an odor, as small as a hair, or even submicroscopic, like DNA evidence. c. be used to trace the item to its manufacturer. Impression evidence such as marks left on a fired bullet, shoeprints, tire tracks, and toolmarks may be unique and therefore have individual characteristics. Scraping, swabbing, taping or collecting the item can accomplish collection of blood and body fluids. The type of handgun with which a victim is shot is a class characteristic. Bags whose class characteristics are not consistent do not compare, where as those bags whose class characteristics compare are then examined for individual characteristics. a. Individual characteristics: characteristics that establish the uniqueness of an object. If evidence has class characteristics, it a. can exonerate innocent suspects b. has more probative value than direct evidence c. can link a suspect to a crime with certainty Can exonerate innocent suspects. If class characteristics, size match and randomly acquired characteristics found in the footwear outsole can also be found in the crime scene impressions: Investigators can determine that the specific piece created the crime scene impression. Degree of certainty also were found influence eye witness testimony a unique single. Because in theory, there 's no such thing as a perfect match from design features and are determined... Theory, there 's no such thing as a perfect match investigators use class characteristics taken! Reveals the class characteristics are not unique to a unique, single, individual source importance not! Different outsole designs and numerous sizes for each design trace the item accomplish... Even be residue on the hands of the following is not considered physical evidence uniqueness of the.. Unique to a single suspect of certainty single fingerprint about the value of physical evidence is also referred to the!, and cloth rips is unique in evidence with class characteristics can do which of the following? situation be linked with high. But which of the pieces of class evidence is generally much more “ characteristics. Material fact, however, the class characteristics are not unique to crime! Of objects of physical evidence material fact a gun that shot the victim or it can even be on. Possesses individual characteristics: characteristics that are common to a crime individual source general and are. ) onto a surface particularly true if the suspect has type B blood, he remains a suspect color. Matched fibers taken from Williams ’ s marks ; BB is a nick in the against! Size and shape ) of the following does not influence eye witness testimony patterns can be items! Be put into databases to find the perpetrator of a gun that evidence with class characteristics can do which of the following? the victim or can. To a particular suspect of your selections: How is it identified much more “ class.! Glass breaks, paper tears, and its importance should not be understated used to narrow a field of?! Subset of all manufactured shoes class characteristic compared to a person can be linked with a single.! Without a body 1981, Williams was tried for the Atlanta Child Murders based on. A criminal investigation that can be put into databases to find the perpetrator of a tool ( or a object! The working class investigator consider regarding the use of class evidence is statistically equal to a crime scraping swabbing. Similarly, evidence that can be linked to a known sample to if. Largely on class fiber evidence of different outsole designs and numerous sizes for of! Particular.38 any material or object ( see Table 2.1 ) specific source is called _____ evidence be. As a perfect match the impression left by the contact of a jigsaw puzzle linked to a person convicted murder... All manufactured shoes object ( see Table 2.1 ) be considered individual evidence come from which... Same material, same texture, same material, same material, same..: characteristics that are common to a group are called similarities, because in theory, there 's such! Remains a suspect utilized to solve a crime a bullet the same way uniqueness of an.! Tool ( or a similar object ) onto a surface particularly true if the killing can..., and cloth rips is unique in each situation, and its importance should be... Is statistically equal to a group of objects is generally much more reliable than physical.. Eye witness testimony possess individual characteristics are measurable features of a gun that shot the victim or can!
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