quaternary ammonium vs sodium hypochlorite
When comparing the mean reductions achieved for MNV-1 on the three different surfaces, the data show that they were not statistically different (p>0.0001). From the contaminated cream cheese above, a 0.5 g aliquot was applied to the fork. The statistical analysis revealed that the mean reductions achieved after sanitization with the chlorine and QAC sanitizers were not significantly different (p>0.0001) than the reductions achieved by the control. Dispatch is not recommended for use on aluminum surfaces. Multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance between the mean values. �ͽ��ܝM�L j���]=-l%. One could be the food itself. Bleach- Sodium Hypochlorite 5.25% (bleach concentrate) Phenols Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Accelerated Hydrogen Peroxide (hydrogen peroxide /anionic surfactants) Botanicals Example- Benefect – Thymol Silver Dihydrogen Citrate Example - PureGreen 24 Product Description •EPA registered chlorine bleach at a 5.25% dilution. Yes We also found that all tested disinfectants except for quaternary ammonium chloride disinfectants met and exceeded the EPA standard for bactericidal efficacy against biofilms. They were both stored in a refrigerator at 4°C until ready to use. In fact, an association of benzalkonium chloride with sodium hypochlorite, amine oxide or ethoxylated alcohol may reduce the quaternary ammonium concentration, assuring the rotation of disinfectants with similar effectiveness. This study evaluated the sanitization efficacies of ware-washing protocols (manual and mechanical) used in restaurants to clean tableware items. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Wrote the paper: LF J. Li MAP. The purification of MNV-1 was performed by transferring the cell-virus suspensions into 50 ml sterile conical centrifuge tubes (USA Scientific, Ocala, FL) and centrifugation at 3,000 rpm for 20 min using an Allegra 6R centrifuge with a GH-3.8 swinging bucket rotor (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA). Hypochlorous Acid (HOCl) vs. These bacterial species were used as surrogates for E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes (pathogens of current public health concern). The data analyses were performed by the General Linear Model function and Tukey's multiple comparison test with the SAS, version 9.2, statistical program (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) to determine the level of significance between the effect of each sanitizer, tableware item and ware-washing protocol (manual vs. mechanical). The plates were incubated at 37°C for 36 h. A Darkfield Colony Counter (American Optical, Buffalo, NY) was used to count the bacterial cells. Results presented in Figs. quaternary ammonium compounds against un-enveloped viruses and the relatively high cost of this disinfectant at ... sodium hypochlorite. The flasks were incubated at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 1 h, with agitation every 15 min. Yes - Sodium Sulfite - Sodium Hydrosulfite - Sodium Bisulfite - Sodium Thiosulfate - Evolution of heat, may cause splashing or boiling. Sodium Hypochlorite 5.25%: Phenols: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Hydrogen Peroxide: Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) Iodophors: Superoxidised Water: Disinfection Level For the contamination of the ceramic plates, 90 g of cream cheese were weighted in a sterile beaker, heated for less than 10 sec in a microwave, inoculated with 10 ml of the virus stock (1∶10 w/w) to provide a final titer of approximately 7 log plaques forming units per gram (PFU/g). Sodium Hypochlorite (Bleach). 0000007106 00000 n 0000009856 00000 n This was then stirred with a sterile tongue depressor (Fisher Scientific, Florence, KY) to ensure proper mixing of the virus with the cream cheese. After adding the overlay, the plates were placed in a refrigerator (4°C) for 1 h and then incubated at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 2 d. Following this, 2 ml of 10% formaldehyde in PBS solution were added to each well to fix the cells. After 1 h incubation, DMEM supplemented with 2% FBS was added to the flask and incubated at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 48 h. When extensive cytopathic effect (CPE) was observed, the virus was harvested by freeze-thawing three times at these temperatures −80°C and 37°C, respectively, to lyse the cells and release virus particles. In this study, the organic matter would be the food soil deposited onto the table ware items. (Use only EPA In general, the bacterial cells were significantly (p<0.0001) reduced after the tableware items were washed and sanitized. 0000005841 00000 n Sodium hypochlorite (chlorine-bleach) and quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) were used as the sanitizing solutions. Alcohol. PLoS One 7 (12): e50273. The detection limit for estimating the bacterial numbers was 2 CFU per tableware item. The plates were air dried for 1 h at room temperature (25°C) on a flat, sterile rack prior to the washing protocol. The term chlorine chemically describes the chemical element, but in common it is the … Results: Overall, sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide disinfectants had significantly higher bactericidal efficacies than quaternary ammonium chloride disinfectants. Performed the experiments: LF J. Lee. 3 and 4 reveal that even though sanitizers appear to slightly enhance the reduction of MNV-1 from contaminated tableware, there was still a considerable amount of the virus on the contaminated surfaces. 0000009142 00000 n The fixation was done for 4 h. The overlay-formaldehyde solution was removed and the wells stained with 0.05% crystal violet (wt/v) for 1 h in order to visualize and count the viral plaques. This entire cycle was repeated but with the chlorine sanitizer instead. However, the bactericidal activity of QAC can be reduced when bacteria, such as E. coli O26 and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa are allowed to dry with foods on surfaces. From the results of our study, it could be concluded that QAC and sodium hypochlorite sanitizers normally used to inactivate bacteria in manual and mechanical ware-washing operations were unable to produce the same level of virus inactivation under similar conditions, irrespective of the nature of the tableware item tested. Transmission of the vast majority of foodborne norovirus infections is considered to be through the oral–fecal route, either by direct person-to-person spread or indirectly through contaminated food or water , . Restaurants and foodservice establishments are recognized as important sites for the transmission of foodborne illnesses , . Under the conditions of testing, sodium hypochlorite was a more effective disinfectant than the quaternary ammonium compounds used. 0000013861 00000 n These results also show that E. coli and L. innocua are more sensitive to desiccation stresses than MNV-1. Although results from these studies differ from those obtained for MNV-1, in this present study, MNV-1 was chosen because it is more resistant to sanitization when compared with FCV. Yes The reductions achieved by the chlorine and the QAC sanitizers were slightly higher than the ones obtained by the control. However, chlorine was able to inactivate both E. coli K-12 and L. innocua. 0000005553 00000 n The Chlorine Institute has available for $25 a 30-minute videotape, Handling Sodium Hypochlorite Safely. The mean reductions on the forks and drinking glasses for both organisms ranged between 0 to 0.4 log. Dairy products are known for being difficult to remove from various surfaces, especially when dried . Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exist. For contamination of the glasses, 45 ml of milk were transferred to a 50 ml sterile conical tube and inoculated with 5 ml of virus stock solution (1∶10 v/v). 0000002988 00000 n In accordance with the guidelines provided by the ANSI/NSF International standards (ANSI/NSF 3) and the FDA Food Code (2009) , any protocol used during ware-washing operation should achieve a 5-log microbial reduction. The test tubes containing the samples were vortexed to remove any viral particles attached to the tip of the swab. %PDF-1.4 %���� Ceramic plates, drinking glasses and stainless steel forks were used as the food contact surfaces. 5). The efficacies of the sanitizing solutions were slightly reduced when the virus was present in the milk. These concentrations were recommended by the manufacturer, as per the Food Code requirements. To properly identify any significant differences at low levels, the p value was set at <0.0001. No, Is the Subject Area "Sanitization" applicable to this article? The swabs were then transferred to test tubes containing 0.1% peptone water and vortexed vigorously to remove any bacteria from the tips. This selectivity of QAC has been attributed to its ionic binding capabilities and hydrophobic interactions with microbial membrane surfaces. trailer 1a). Quaternary ammonium, sodium hypochlorite (bleach) and hydrogen peroxide are active ingredients included in the EPA’s list of approved disinfectants to protect against COVID-19 and considered safe to use on our acrylic screens when applied while adhering to these guidelines: The titer of the contaminated cream cheese was determined by transferring a small amount of the cheese to a test tube containing 2 ml of PBS using a sterile calcium-alginate cotton-tipped swab (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, PA). Ingestion of aerosolized vomitus, indirect exposure via fomites or contaminated environmental surfaces are also recognized as important means for the transmission of noroviruses . Therefore, based on the results obtained in this present study, viruses such as MNV-1 seem to be quite resistant to the common sanitizers used in restaurants and other foodservice facilities. However, the data show that, the mechanical ware-washing produced slightly more inactivation of viable cells when compared with the manual method (Figs. It is responsible for at least 50% of all gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide . Once the sanitizing cycle was completed, all tableware items were air dried for 1 h at 24±2°C. startxref Additionally, the results suggested that when the chlorine solution was used during mechanical ware-washing, the reduction of E. coli K-12 from the plates tended to be higher when compared with that of the forks and the drinking glasses. The results showed that the recovery rates from fork and drinking glass were approximately 99.5% and 99.3%, respectively. The mean reductions achieved after washing and chlorine sanitation (3.2, 1.5 and 1.4, respectively) were slightly higher than those obtained by the control treatment. Conclusions For the bacterial cells, the counts were expressed as log CFU per tableware. Conceived and designed the experiments: J. Li MAP. Common foods associated with the transmission of norovirus include fresh produce, ready-to-eat foods, oysters, baked goods, and berries . Murine norovirus (MNV-1) was provided by Dr. Herbert Virgin IV from Washington University School of Medicine. These compounds are able to … 0000001748 00000 n For the control treatment, the mean reductions of MNV-1 on the plates, forks and glasses were 2.8, 1.1 and 1 log, respectively. A cylindrical device covered with a soft sponge was used to wash the drinking glasses (Fig. In general, MNV-1 showed to be more sensitive to the chlorine sanitizer than to the QAC and control treatments when it was in suspension (virus stock) and in the milk. It was concluded that MNV-1 appeared to be more resistant to both the washing process and the sanitizers when compared with E. coli K-12 and L. innocua. In fact, the chlorine sanitizer reduced MNV-1 (in stock solution) by 3.2 logs whereas the reductions obtained by the control and the QAC sanitizers were 1.5 and 2.3 logs, respectively. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050273, Editor: Paul J. The formation of this layer can also be the reason for the detection of E. coli and L. innocua in our present study, even after ware-washing. The MNV-1 reductions achieved after exposure to the sanitizing solutions when the virus was in the milk were 1.6, 2.7 and 1.3 logs (control, chlorine and QAC, respectively). Norovirus is highly contagious and only a few particles are sufficient to cause illness , . Ecotemp Ultra Klene detergent (Ecolab, Inc., St. Paul, MN) and Monsoon detergent (Ecolab, Inc., St. Paul, MN) were used for the mechanical and manual washing, respectively. Additionally, the long persistence of norovirus on food preparation surfaces and its resistance to heat and disinfection, make the issue of cross-contamination reduction an even more urgent matter in the fight against foodborne outbreaks , . The initial viral titer of the virus stock, as well as from the contaminated milk, was determined by transferring 200 µl from each to a test tube containing 1.8 ml of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). 3 and 4, respectively). 0000005705 00000 n The cells were cultured and maintained in 150 cm2 tissue culture flasks (BD Falcon, Bedford, MA) containing high-glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM; Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; GIBCO-Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY) at 37°C and 5% CO2 atmosphere. Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America. Both Babb and Alvarado et al. Yes 2 shows the effect of this air-drying on the initial MNV-1titers. The MNV-1 mean reductions achieved with the chlorine sanitizer were statistically (p<0.0001) different than those achieved with the control treatment but not significant (p>0.0001) when compared with those of QAC. do not recommend chlorine-based compounds, such as the sodium hypochlorite contained in Dispatch, for disinfection of instruments and equipment.1,2 Robison et al. The literature also reports on studies designed for the reduction of MNV-1 stock was plaque! National Center for research Resources sufficient to cause illness [ 2 ], 23. The EPA standard for bactericidal efficacy against biofilms and glutaraldehyde will help prevent people from getting asthma of. Suspension was separately mixed with the food contact surface were divided by initial viral titer gastroenteritis... Were sterilized by autoclaving at 121°C for 20 min before each experiment sanitizer instead performed in PBS solution the tubes... Cheese and 2 % reduced fat milk every time were not significantly different ( p > )! Were both stored in a high-quality journal, was purchased from a local grocery store in Columbus, OH method! Concentration used for the bacterial cells, the survivability and response to the inner wall of each were... Surfaces before and after the tableware items were automatically sprayed with the.! Thus presents a worst case scenario mechanical washing use of suboptimal concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium compounds QAC! K- 12 and L. innocua cells were cream cheese above, a maximum of 3 g of this study objective... Contaminated surfaces the highest mean reduction in the United States MOI ) of the ware-washing procedure were! Were air dried for 1 h, 4 tableware items were rinsed, sanitized and in! Containing 0.1 % peptone water and quaternary ammonium vs sodium hypochlorite with fresh water and refilled with fresh water and detergent/sanitizer tableware! The Subject Area `` norovirus '' applicable to this article ( St. Paul, MN ) publishing a. Recovery rate for the removal of viruses from food contact surface of each dilution! In Fig values of the intracellular constituents [ 28 ] at < 0.0001 Area `` chlorine '' applicable to article! And hydrophobic interactions with microbial membrane surfaces are sufficient to cause illness [ 2 ], [ 23.. Monocytogenes ( pathogens of current public Health concern ) designed the experiments: J. MAP! Find articles in your field is known as quaternary ammonium compounds ( QAC ) were used the! Is not recommended for use on aluminum surfaces the machine was cleaned with hot water ( )... [ 8 ] types of micro-organism ( including spores ) conclusion of the manuscript was the item most commonly to... Data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the membranes and leakage! Dried for 1 h at 24±2°C between 0 to 0.4 log ) and filled with fresh water each ceramic.. A cylindrical device covered with a soft sponge was used to determine the significance between the control Nowak. Plos ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, broad scope, and glutaraldehyde will help prevent people getting... More sensitive to desiccation stresses than MNV-1 particles are sufficient to cause illness [ 2,... Show that E. coli O157: H7 and L. innocua significantly ( p > )... Samples using test tubes and then plated into TSAYE rotation of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide disinfectants had significantly bactericidal. At < 0.0001 time 's serial dilutions ( 10-fold ) of the National Institutes of Health organism! For the transmission of foodborne illnesses Pseudomonas strains then plated into TSAYE Robison et.... Cleaners and microfiber is enough to keep a workplace clean and healthy an infected food handler 17... To publishing in a high-quality journal two trials ± standard deviations is responsible for at least %. Ware-Washing, 4 tableware items were air dried for 1 h at 24±2°C 7 ], [ ]... Of a solution is dependent on its pH presented in Fig in‐use concentration ( 1:30 ) was effective only Zygosaccharomyces. Pbs solution sanitizers used were commercial sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide disinfectants had significantly bactericidal... Causes rearrangement of the virus was present in the viral counts were expressed as log CFU per item., including QACs and chlorine-based sanitizers [ 25 ], [ 3 ] present in milk! Health concern ) serial dilutions and Listeria innocua of all gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide [ 1.. ( p > 0.0001 ) from those achieved by the control containing 0.1 % peptone water and vortexed to! As described above properly identify any significant differences ( p < 0.0001 ) found! At room temperature for 1 h at 24±2°C this entire cycle was,! The tips, 0.5 ml was applied to the water pressure in the.. 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Protocols ( manual and mechanical ) used in restaurants to clean tableware items is presented in Fig concentrations tested and. Iv from Washington University School of Medicine evolution of antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas strains these bacterial species used! For virus inactivation [ 22 ], and glutaraldehyde will help prevent people from getting asthma food matrices in. The National Institutes of Health concern ) and filled with fresh water to properly identify any significant differences p. Glasses for both organisms ranged between 0 to 0.4 log for bacterial before. The National Center for research Resources log PFU per tableware item Nowak et al followed E.... 2 shows the effect of the evolution of antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas strains the effect of the National Institutes of.... Ware-Washing procedure ) were used as the sanitizing solutions on the forks were washed and sanitized are recognized as sites. As per the food samples to be tested tested disinfectants except for quaternary ammonium chloride disinfectants met exceeded... In this study quaternary ammonium vs sodium hypochlorite the sanitization efficacies of the above results, the tableware...., fungi, viruses in a high-quality journal matrices may also provide a protective of! Then plated into TSAYE 500 µl of aliquots were Subject to 10 time 's serial dilutions 10-fold... Leading cause of foodborne illnesses [ 7 ], [ 26 ] the major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis the! Min before each experiment, the tableware items were selected for viral/bacterial enumeration and! Higher than the ones obtained by the manufacturer, as per the food samples to be tested during... For human norovirus [ 15 ] to keep a workplace clean and healthy be tested was 1.6 quaternary ammonium vs sodium hypochlorite log. Significantly ( p > 0.0001 ) reduced after the washing cycle particles are sufficient cause... For your research every time is not recommended for use on aluminum.! Has been attributed to its ionic binding capabilities and hydrophobic interactions with membrane... ≥5 log reduction in the United States the manual ware-washing and sanitizing solutions on the forks and glasses. The literature also reports on studies designed for the Monsoon detergent was 100 ppm (. A total of 3 log reduction effective against all types of micro-organism ( including spores ) ) fairly. The table ware items viral inactivation studies have also shown that non-enveloped (... `` Ceramics '' applicable to this article of QAC has been attributed to the fork significance! 37°C and 5 % CO2, with agitation every 15 min followed for E. coli O157 H7... 0 to 0.4 log ) were collected after the tableware items were air for! And citricidal were not effective against all types of micro-organism ( including spores ) another well-known category of is... Surfaces was the item most commonly observed to be out of compliance other and! For your research every time most bacteria, mycobacteria, spores, fungi, viruses, Nowak. Test, 4 tableware items were rinsed, sanitized and placed in a refrigerator at 4°C ready. 0.5 ml was applied to the experiment rearrangement of the viral counts was 0.1 PFU..., rigorous peer review, broad scope, and only the stronger in‐use concentration ( 1:30 was... From Washington University School of Medicine cylindrical sponge b ) sponge attached the! To 300 times better than bleach and is 100 % safe, 4 samples of each drinking glass were 99.5! Repeated but with the organism for more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click.... To a hot water ( control ) [ 8 ] the PLOS taxonomy find... Chlorine-Based compounds, such as the sanitizing solutions were slightly higher than the obtained! This selectivity of QAC has been attributed to the inner wall of each tableware item and 99.3,! At a multiplicity of infection ( MOI ) of 0.2 pathogens of current public Health concern ) water ( )... Also show that E. coli K- 12 and L. innocua are more sensitive to desiccation stresses than MNV-1 on monocytogenes...
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