# introduction to descriptive statistics pdf

Descriptive Statistical Analysis helps you to understand your data and is a very important part of Machine Learning. 4 0 obj Descriptive statistics are typically presented graphically, in tabular form (in tables), or as summary statistics (single values). AN INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS STATISTICS . x�m�OK�P����X����yI��Ф��ŀ��Hړ�||�Q#������-�K�T�5d�º���$'"�(� 7�k�t?ǙIq�ֈD�%:ΙvL�40�X�L�Ja�$�c��Ȥt`y��ڧ3��L�Y��ho�6ɣ��z4U������0a�wqzcJ�/�Jb�}�fj�L]����,4+Q!> �lIw descriptive statistics, summarizing data both in table and graphical form. %PDF-1.5 endobj <> M. BlandAn introduction to medical statistics (3rd ed. 01 | Introduction & Descriptive Statistics Mon 02.03 Included in this dataset: Categorical Variables (burrito name, location, reviewer) Variables which denote groups or categories Quantitative Variables (cost, Yelp score, volume, “flavor synergy”) Variables with which mathematical operations can be performed Bonus dichotomy: Discrete (Yelp score, “flavor synergy”) Continuous (cost, volume) endobj endobj stream endobj 21 0 obj <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> endobj An Introduction to Basic Statistics and Probability – p. 10/40. REVIEW ARTICLE An introduction to descriptive statistics: A review and practical guide Gill Marshall*, Leon Jonker Faculty of Health, Medical Sciences and Social Care, University of Cumbria, Bowerham Road, Lancaster LA1 3JD, UK Some of the common measurements in descriptive statistics are central tendency and others the variability of the dataset. endobj endobj Introduction to Statistics Descriptive Statistics Types of data A variate or random variable is a quantity or attribute whose value may vary from one unit of investigation to another. endobj This basically means, that if your data is not normally distributed, you need to be very careful what statistical tests you apply to it since th… <>>> [ 40 0 R] 23. ,�*ʦ�Tb��ߋ�,�&VK�/��� endobj endobj 28 0 obj stream ��%�|m�B�*K�7�1�LFd��kS����*L���u`�۵o�N)XVٓEa+c�)lW1o�A� �.y4��� Q�8ӌ��gUrDH�#�u^@��6{�����B�r 42 0 obj �F��1����\��)�'c�����R|d��܁�p6ʄHڳ��C��&v. %PDF-1.5 <>/Font<>>>/BBox[ 0 0 72.964 49] /Matrix[ 0.98679 0 0 1.4694 0 0] /Filter/FlateDecode/Length 281>> 22 0 obj endobj {���؍��{��3�q���U��*d����~y��� Introduction to Descriptive Statistics | 3 Types of data 5. Statistics has a significant part in the field of data science. endobj x���AK1����9����$�ـl�k� ��z�?�l�J[�49e�|���k�B_1�W�Th��*z��`�$�v1�CE��{��):����e`����Z���eG��*S���-d�T���P���6���g�cx�����Y��|�7��K��f!�`���rH���9[�,��$�������)(~��/�TO�qR���wӞ��v ދ:$���sgÌ�_��&���Im���hi�)��/"�5�ɐt6z���O�a�T?��z �r�� The normal distribution is one of the most important concepts in statistics since nearly all statistical tests require normally distributed data. Basically, data are two types: constant and variable. Introduction to Statistical Analysis of Laboratory Data presents a detailed discussion of important statistical concepts and methods of data presentation and analysis. �M!L#�hJ�S ��Z���Fo�!d��'T�x�;r��� 7�g�)�y��ك 8��t/y��IJ�`%B�VU�ݞ@�gO�{ �N�'yv�gpv5������ P^x�a�����ZI�N O0�Ǽ�:ϳ;���eU�n>Pl .%kW��-KN����'�+�cN:~�U �lS�M,mB��ǒ�m�~��kuW3�f�x�a3U|nv���|U/��ǧJ$Х��d��%�4#�D��P�b�8Btv������e����kV ��M%�C�V�B���_��w�����UH�����k�X� �#�zg���TO|}�)-��:���:R6����Tq����]q�� ��l�����(���iH�}��4��H�;t*ҕ����n�� CONTENTs Introduction Chapter 1 Basic Concepts in Statistics 1.1 Statistical Concepts 2 1.2 Variables and Type of Data 5 1.3 Sampling Techniques 12 1.4 Observational and Experimental Studies 17 Chapter 2 Organizing and Graphing Data 2.1 Raw Data 32 2.2 Organizing and Graphing Qualitative Data 33 2.3 Organizing and Graphing Quantitative Data 47 Chapter 3 Numerical Descriptive Measures <> endstream endstream In this post you will learn about the most important… <> 44 0 obj endobj <> Any statistical package can read these formats. <> endobj <> Probability Distributions The probability distribution for a random variable X gives the possible values for X, and the probabilities associated with each possible value (i.e., the likelihood that the values will occur) <> Introduction. Data is separated by comma, tab or space. Data (plural) are measurements or observations that are … Practically any statistical software can open/read these type of files. <> The rest is new. Acknowledgements Parts of this booklet were previously published in a booklet of the same name by the Mathematics Learning Centre in 1990. ʇ�oa��F�}j������"���:~TԂ���6Kd�,��e26��LӲ����,��,��l����.Eb%��5��$>��&��-�@��M[M�ݭ��\�伓\��{�H�Im�QŎ�W�۵I��H����Y�� & ;��M�����KJ�!������C��uަJA���|�Gc����nj�k��eҀ�/���5�4p��gt���a�RWH%]�����>���`�w�N>���s2zDp@�Ν� !����y�Zڄ���rI����\�i�P��Q��sEP�������aj*�� �����Je*�r,v�I{ѭDR�R����[��"����S��3��fmzs&�3��� E�&�i3ʔ��ʰ��t,�D]�e��Qu۲B�|ZY�-���C�#��컟'��lȾ����N.�C�%N�[��O�B�9y� ve@~������q�H�`H�h�ϛ���"�I������V�o�y�J|��kvyMe�A������jJ��c�����i�A�ы~��'���̾��,7�(&�@��DX��vyl���K4�{�(UI�mS�Q��)���Q�*i�ǧ���-��T0f|���� �\��й�ǜw���.�N��+bn��Ԧ�=����l;Gr��$;�Zx0(PvO19�U�a��+H�k�]�O�0�E]~/��٧ށݎ��^�4U�C�j�.��xCW���c�;����7�Nc�)���R��BƴN��v)� <> This is due to Machine Learning being all about making predictions. <>/Font<>>>/BBox[ 0 0 402.95 294.92] /Matrix[ 0.17868 0 0 0.24413 0 0] /Filter/FlateDecode/Length 870>> 27 0 obj <> <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 15 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 2>> endobj 6 PART I INTRODUCTION AND DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS Discrete variables are measured in categories or whole units and are not measured along a continuum. Descriptive statistics are just descriptive. <> could use descriptive statistics to describe your sample, including: Sample mean Sample standard deviation Making a bar chart or boxplot Describing the shape of the sample probability distribution. �*p��=��lS1���n9���w�սt��p~�~�� ǻ4�4�Z������=������7�e��� ;�>:���7V��|n�.�c�q�_�2��;����1o�1��r=5P��@�]O� 11 0 obj It helps us in the collection, analysis and representation of data either by visualisation or by numbers into a general understandable format. They do not involve generalizing beyond the data at hand. Key measures Describing data Moment Non-moment based location parameters Center Mean Mode, median <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Inferential statistics and the calculation of probabilities require that a normal distribution is given. ʀuVY��MT���yv.>H,�\:��߯����^^�_���+L���1sG�GB�*ۄ�6�ъ!�S'� Generally, we divide statistics into two main branches which are Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics. Introduction to Descriptive Statistics Jackie Nicholas Mathematics Learning Centre University of Sydney NSW 2006 c 1999 University of Sydney. On the other hand, statistics is all about drawing conclusions from data, which is a necessary initial step. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1996) Google Scholar. stream endobj endobj Descriptive statistics summarize and organize characteristics of a data set. 17 0 obj stream <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 8 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 1>> 1 0 obj endobj endobj %���� <> stream Another type of extensions are *.txt for tab-separated data and *.prn for space-separated data. provided on descriptive statistics in an earlier article, it can be used as a starting point for applying statistics in radiography practice and research. It is sometimes called the “bell curve“ or the “Gaussian curve“. 10 0 obj 2 | IBM SPSS Statistics 23 Part 1: Descriptive Statistics Introduction SPSS stands for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences.This program can be used to analyze data collected from surveys, tests, observations, etc. 37 0 obj A lot of people skip this part and therefore lose … [ 27 0 R] 3 0 obj It basically describes how large samples of data look like when they are plotted. 15 0 obj 30 0 obj 9 0 obj endobj endobj The purpose of the present lecture notes is to provide its readers with a solid and thorough, though accessible introduction to the basic concepts of Descriptive and Inferential Statistics. ��v���[3� 2�&=k}�����C�*���?|��C��2q/�ݹ�'�����c�,f�e*���\��;�)��~Z���y���/[�0?a5ܶSy�]n endobj An introduction to inferential statistics. ioc.pdf Descriptive Statistics (DS) Descriptive statisticsare numbers that are used to summarize and describe data. 39 0 obj 38 0 obj ��(-�=�\�E)$)N(������D�z�͛�7�&g�͛����aoߒwG��.Ma�1ƅ`�X��V�T>M��e�|8�\�ӄ��Gk�g*0���&�ӄO ��m�w ���(x^�B@@#�i�3DiA� �R���&��i�]�s��#_��̯���c�*"o�����.�eFz��BXZ����+���b�y��W�b�ğ�5�'\f�2w�&�e�����.��"��H��.�Ɣ ����ܦ�y�$��y�OݷRQg5�iQ��iLۃ��dTV�Ah�uA��X�=+L;�j+A��,i:���ݸnf�4���� ��7���d�4V;=��P�D���h�h�Zkt�Z��&"i9��z=#�!�(#(�D��y�i�����ROb��`N���N�?6�T4��H^P���Y�}>�р �����'"��W�(��T���JDY� �� <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 22 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 3>> c�n�z]Yu��R��� G�6��P�1̀��A�a�� (���@qN-d�7�e��R횏��C��60Ջ���}X�3\z��X�W�w/�?/4V�X�b-М��e�C�LpTa���۔���fe5�:�����% �vn4Q �g��J��lS.ges"D6���paN��Aa0�*�͑��$5��&���k���=��f�R�KC]`[բ�,�a��/���I�1YU"���T���q:b@}fH~B��l�w�s�=�ć�&�'!w:_)=�(�SA���@M�~�`uֱ�(�F�|� ]5�A���A!�����^#�ֵ�:���_��m�#�$tV/�,D|+�u��q�-f�P�0|[��{�_m�Z��ц����1���v��l3 The term descriptive statistics deals with collecting, summarizing, and . endobj <> Source: NIH.GOV. endobj Discrete data are not measured in fractional units. A data set is a collection of responses or observations from a sample or entire population.. <> A. EdmondsonAdvanced biology: statistics. Descriptive Statistics 1.1 Descriptive vs. Inferential There are two main branches of statistics: descriptive and inferential. 35 0 obj 18 0 obj 8 0 obj endstream <> Published on July 9, 2020 by Pritha Bhandari. While descriptive statistics summarize the characteristics of a data set, inferential statistics help you come to conclusions and make predictions based on your data.. Inferential statistics is used to make predictions or comparisons ��W>�x��� ��(RYS�ի��ґK�U���Ѕ�E 23 0 obj <> �~q�m���64w���QܿT�s�qD۹@;��*Z)x��\9! endobj endobj %���� Revised on January 21, 2021. Introduction to Descriptive Statistics When you have large amounts of data, you will need to organize it in a way that makes sense. <> endobj Quantitative variables vary by amount, can be continuous or discrete, and are measured in numeric units. endobj Reasons for paying attention to data description • Double-check data acquisition • Data exploration • Data explanation . 14 0 obj 24 0 obj 7 introduction to statistical analysis of laboratory data pdf, Introduction to Statistical Analysis of Laboratory Data PDF Free Download. Statistics emerged in the context of the analysis of (nowadays large) data sets from observational and experimental measurements in the Natural Sciences. !�����ݦ,m�����`��s���xަ\����m�OY�D4�����Y]��\>���0��v�zC���Re�����3.�y�'���e�t����B߾������R��T�]1�bZ���c��(�1u���1�i��L9��3:UqDoS���5��'���̌v9?�`|�. Available formats: •Delimited. Descriptive statistical analysis helps us to understand our data and is very important part of Machine Learning. E-BOOK DESCRIPTION. Data are a collection of facts such as values or measurements. 26 0 obj 2 0 obj 1 0 obj The remainder of the book describes most of the statistical tests that you will need for an introductory course in In Descriptive statistics you are describing, presenting, summarizing, and organizing your data, either through numerical calculations or graphs or tables. Introduction to Statistics is a resource for learning and teaching introductory statistics. <> 5 0 obj 43 0 obj endobj endobj endstream These ballots from an election are rolled together with similar ballots to … &r@bvs��çսD#f�xvt�*��N��)R3E��f2��2��B��y�r�,�l�g�)�*\UR���"T>�|"�^o`�W&ՅE��!���ن��?���~���P\�ߑe��)Ԩ�4Iyt>I�)�� 6Q�Rx��]�zRGD*����j+�1�-�x��{q��S6��6��U-�^��nl2�����wE��/�+���Pa�ِ�ʇ�p|7�ˁ?�.�Y\�6��(Z.ڛO�V��gK9p�KچB�W(�Ï����b0>��0|�0�)W��#Mx��#�b���8S��M�w�;�z�8�m�*�#��\#�]"�w��i�����[�s�ٙhԡ�g��C��+�La��D������{J�.�K���u���������b�ٞ�� endobj <> <> For example, the units might be headache sufferers and endobj <> x����nAE�#�zi#���c�xH,���E!�@1 �����TYbBd��9�������b��T|���������E��`�r%RT6g�O�V��g�I����{5=��u����b�ެ&e�7�%��u��L����Ǣ�Bj����F]����[J��%�y�����R8ఈ:��i�Un��\ȕ!ܬ����љLdT���(N͂���3��GL�T�fa�4�b�� >}�0��w����5j�̑L�cW�! Revised on December 28, 2020. endobj endobj There are two major divisions of statistics such as descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. <> 36 0 obj 2 0 obj An introduction to descriptive statistics. endstream <> endobj 34 0 obj endobj Descriptive statisticsis a collection of methods for summarizing data (e.g., mean, median, mode, range, variance, graphs). endobj x�}�Mk�@E���r"d��d&�E\mh!��B��vS�F�'i�F���ǹg�E��d���4�b6��&�4�1�"5g �Z���RDŚ)��k���ޜ�GR����́A�Q�����jJ,�}K�80[���˴�zmc��B��*�u�4buy�Q��c���Q�����O�#���6 endstream 40 0 obj <> et�J9��m^�ZS��6�z�f���Y]0x *���eZK�� \T32��s�xȄU.ޓ�#��� h�"D`�'B�F�!�MA�l�V�S��|猗)�P��F�Wx���OZ��Wn��`E[=K����dH�U�5��HzPNŊ��>t��$5xG2#,�cWFbV�|�I ���F`�WK�Ǯ��������G� ����gyM�{� ��&�A9I��F�x��+\�n ���� 4)��آ$`�Ͱ�]?�-�|[��X�N�>,`ZH�z|���U,a_�>�יvD�+�9�(^�'��5p�n��|�U 16 0 obj The most common extension is *.csv (comma-separated value). 45 0 obj Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were conducted. 31 0 obj 29 0 obj 6 0 obj <> [ 11 0 R] endobj Descriptive statistics are procedures used to summarize, organize, and make sense of a set of scores or observations. 13 0 obj stream SPSS: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 7 The Division of Statistics + Scientific Computation, The University of Texas at Austin If you have continuous data (such as salary) you can also use the Histograms option and its suboption, With normal curve, to allow you to assess whether your data are normally distributed, which is an assumption of several inferential statistics. INTRODUCTION Statistical analysis is the process by which numerical data obtained by scientific inquiry are transformed into a useable form for scientific inter- pretation. �������of�s���y��v%�9�Z��]����nز��Y�`5!�W3gW���Xp*�2��i�z�f@����7A�ˋz�������i; Y�=������к�� �(��"}`_�u���Jk}K*���'ժ���cxO��XF��o�D4��c~�%d���I�`�#��=Nj�]mٱ� ^�&����2��٣ɬ�:g�[Q?ee���ď_�l�%�uP ���ϫ#㴄*R� <> 3 0 obj 33 0 obj <> <> stream <>/XObject<>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 33 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 4>> endobj Article Download PDF CrossRef View Record in Scopus Google Scholar. endobj endobj 4 0 obj 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Introduction As health care professionals, radiographers are commonly exposed to statistics; the application of statistics is … endobj <>>> 19 0 obj <> 7 0 obj <>/Font<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 44 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 5>> <> This involves manipulation of data for describing characteristics studied (descriptive statistics) and transformation of the data to help infer conclusions from the data (inferential statistics). 22. Statistics for Engineers 4-1 4. <> ��������R�*p�e,-`"��Io�(�?�%�5@Zo���^�*�Wr�ˁ�?���� ��Ǻ+���T���ͪ���K�u L[��9e[�w���Z$����BֶrX�T̖��"r�. endobj endobj It can be numbers, words, measurements, observations, or even just descriptions of things. h�p��0r�""��H ��D�䋐,D$L,�UZ�QM��-�� DU�,��s�%:|u*t2V-A%!iTfQI���J���:����mok�&��Jҍ�}sW ް�8��u�EF��Ӝ��kƶB�J�n�Ry�#��s������Y(��Dñ��|�Eu�q�T�*N-�A:Bv�����p�Vߗn��6V�T��*��x��(G\�����.1�|^�0�?e��ٟ�a9L�QR5�|��{����_y^��p�ǔ(�\r�� C�7t�&t�ѿĐ�Mr�&o`�lp�N�rYd�j^�(=�`'��J�R oɄ7+�tЩ��@�T�����������f�C��E�e�[���ot1;��)?�h�M����s��|��X0J����H�[�H*�D.q$�9R���t�:5�4��i�ؓl�oT���M�*��U��2o�k�.����5�G���1`����S$�b`,���@Mv8���&���^�-+0U{�Pb�5�BѨ4�"�1K�n�,��� ��Pը�Cz�Cт�����R���T�3��o�������b*!��'�d�|Ta���}:^������(�e>�#{�q3�8�>ݧ�[������=�HqÓ!k�&^�u��eԣb�Fz�����-9e�59����ʔo x���Mk1����9&�qf�x�ł��B�C�*{�j�m�b˪�������x6a4Çh��1Bd����(� ��� Bw6��H�$L�c��N�Q.E��9�6��10��3Y �d����HiP�R,լ�}UW��ڽ}�.�U]�J�5�ځ~��A�iJo�9�b0���Ć�T��aU{�U]|ib��E�P�:K/M����"�'�;k��U�Z��,_9Z��`DcO5�>bSEsi꠨�2��*� 7��xn�#g������M�yg�O��}U�[�]�)Y�[>6 Published on September 4, 2020 by Pritha Bhandari. endobj x���OO�0����h#՝����hY�*q@BI�h٤�E����Vq�.9d潙����F����b 2 •Introduce professor & course •Define some basic statistics terminology •Populations vs. samples •Descriptive vs. inferential statistics •Numerical descriptive statistics •Measures of location •Measures of dispersion •Short introduction to JMP <> x��VMO�@�[�أ�Ȳ�� 32 0 obj 12 0 obj 20 0 obj Doing a descriptive statistical analysis of our dataset is absolutely crucial. stream 41 0 obj <> stream x��Z[�۶~��@�I>�Պ�� @��EP�E�C�ٖc�����=��gfHɒ%�JP��B�f�3�\ȇ7e��M�^�zxS��f�n�Ǉ�������S��{�9˓:+�ׯُ��? endobj endstream 25 0 obj <> x��U�n�0��?�j��|H���G�46�CЃ�:AZ�N�A��KIIDǒ��$�fg�ˡ �S��'��@�����!��3 Zi��HP�g5�����,�l8����u�!\=����m��˳�y�'� -)l��L��Z����edd:@ While descriptive statistics (see Introduction to Descriptive Statistics) allow scientists to quickly summarize the major characteristics of a dataset, inferential statistics go a step further by helping scientists uncover patterns or relationships in a dataset, make judgments about data, or apply information about a small dataset to a larger group. A bar graph is one way to summarize data in descriptive statistics. <> Results: The study participants had a mean age of 48.4 and a mean BMI of 32.5, and were predominantly non-Hispanic White (86.3%). endobj Descrip-tive statistics is used to say something about a set of information that has been collected only. Introduction to Descriptive Statistics 17.871 Spring 2015 . Are *.txt for tab-separated data and *.prn for space-separated data numbers, words measurements. Data either by visualisation or by numbers into a useable form for scientific inter- pretation learn the... Data ( e.g., mean, median, mode, range, variance graphs! How large samples of data 5 statistics 17.871 Spring 2015 vs. inferential There are two major divisions of:. Involve generalizing beyond the data at hand units might be headache sufferers introduction... Of files common measurements in descriptive statistics deals with collecting, summarizing, and are measured numeric! 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