the old closes and streets of glasgow
Thus, for example, the “phantoms” or “blurred ghosts” caused by persons or objects having moved during the relatively long exposure time — and regarded by some viewers as contributing to the overall effect of the earlier albumen prints. Dec 7, 2017 - Thomas Annan (1829 -1887) was the son of a Fife farmer and flax spinner and lived for most of his life in Glasgow. Graphic Arts Collection, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library. On Annan and Riis, see Robert Evans, “History in Albumen, Carbon, and Photogravure: Thomas Annan’s Old Glasgow,” pp. the people in them, to recognize them, not as “the poor,” or “street people,” or “arabs”— the term by which the homeless and uprooted or the denizens of city slums were often referred to, as though to emphasize that they were virtually of a different “race” from “us”— but simply as human beings. (New York: D. Appleton, 1865) several years before Annan began photographing the old closes and streets of Glasgow. Annan’s pictures of the old closes and streets were the product of a commission by the municipal authorities of Glasgow which sought to retain a record of the dilapidated old buildings in the city center, the demolition of which had been authorized at least as much in the interest of the health of the city as a whole as in the interest of the slum-dwellers themselves. 37 High Street,” from. The recourse to the stereotypes of famine is driven by the complex political circumstances photography has historically been unable to capture. In addition, the wet collodion process made necessary by the generally poor light conditions required a great deal of equipment, considerable preparation, and further work immediately after the pictures had been taken. 122-23. Mar 23, 2019 - Thomas Annan (1829 -1887) was the son of a Fife farmer and flax spinner and lived for most of his life in Glasgow. List of Streets in Glasgow, Glasgow City, Scotland, Google Maps and Street View Photos. Photographs of the old closes and streets of Glasgow, 1868/1877. By 1870, 70% of all the world’s iron vessels and two-thirds of all steamships were built on the Clyde (Allan Massie, Glasgow: Portraits of a City [London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1989], p. 54). There were outbreaks of typhus in 1818, 1832, 1837, 1847, and 1851-52; cholera epidemics in 1832, 1848-49, and 1853-54, the last two claiming almost 8,000 lives.73 Though some of the better-off citizens were doubtless troubled in their Christian conscience by the inhuman conditions many of their fellow-creatures were living in, few ventured into the noisome and dangerous parts of their city.74 However, a detailed account of these as a scene of hunger, drunkenness, promiscuity, prostitution, violence and crime was readily available to all in a widely-read book put out by a Glasgow publisher in 1858, just a couple of years after Annan opened his photographic business in the city. Close, No. Navigate; Linked Data; Dashboard; Tools / Extras; Stats; Share . 12Alarmed by the threat to all the city’s inhabitants — the well-to-do as well as the poor — from the filth, crime and disease at its very heart, the generally progressive city fathers moved to remedy the situation. 17Each of these print processes — albumen, carbon, photogravure — has its own particular characteristics.85 To what degree do the changes resulting from the different processes both reflect and create varying expectations and responses on the part of viewers? This connection is all the more plausible as Provost Blackie and John Carrick, who were behind the slum demolition plan and the commission to make photographic records of the condemned streets and wynds, were enthusiastic admirers of the redesigning of Paris under Napoleon III and Haussmann, and had led a civic delegation from Glasgow to the French capital in June 1866, the very year in which the City Improvements Act was passed. [...] Should we commend or condemn the Victorians for their redevelopment of the city? [...] Despite the possibility of the photograph existing in multiple copies, [photography is] not a process of mechanical reproduction in the sense in which stamping, casting and die-making are. 25The portrait painter Sir William Newton, who also happened to be a vice-president of the Royal Photographic Society in the 1850s, urged photographers to seek artistic effects rather than a mere copy of nature. (Their vulnerability to extreme weather conditions results in frequent loss of power to thousands of homes.) 101-02: “The view of [Alfred] Stieglitz, [Paul] Strand and [Edward] Weston—that photographs should be, first of all, beautiful (that is, beautifully composed)—seems thin now, too obtuse to the truth of disorder. Photograph from Glasgow University Special Collections. See also the entry on Hooper by Kathleen Howe in John Hannavy, ed., Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, The Victorians themselves, Annan’s contemporaries, appear to have anticipated to some extent the contemporary debate about documentary photographs that depict famine, poverty, war and other forms of human misery. Judith Flanders examines the state of housing for the 19th-century urban poor, assessing the ‘improvements’ carried out in slum areas and the efforts of writers, including Charles Dickens and Henry Mayhew, to publicise such living conditions. 6:6 O. G. Rejlander, Swedish/English, 1813-1875, No title (The Virgin in Prayer). (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012), pp. The interiors of these houses and their inmates corresponded with the exteriors. It did not perceive these wrongs as fundamental to the social system that tolerated them. As a modern scholar has put it, “the picturesque became generalized to that which is multifarious, irregular, unevenly lit, worn, and strange. First, Annan’s own taciturnity. I shall devote the remainder of this chapter to a closer consideration of two issues raised by the scholarly discussion of. that was published in 1900 by James MacLehose & Sons of Glasgow. The building footprints, their use (commercial, residential, educational, etc. 6:15), The late Margaret Harker considered that “the strange and lasting fascination of these photographs” is in fact due to the “curious combination between the picturesque and the sordid in Annan’s interpretation of the Glasgow slums.”, The ten-word e-mail reaction of a friend, the architect and photographer Alan Chimacoff, when I introduced him to, , is by no means untypical: “Beautiful stuff... if that sort of stuff can be beautiful.”, See especially Julie Lawson, “The Problem of Poverty and the Picturesque,” pp. Jakobson’s text was written at a much earlier date, ca.1956. 5-7), 130 Annan’s destiny was by no means unique. A.G. Forbes in the text accompanying Annan’s. 44Toward the end of the essay “Photographic Evangels” in her On Photography, Susan Sontag defines photography as a medium, like language, rather than an art form: Although photography generates works that can be called art — it requires subjectivity, it can lie, it gives esthetic pleasure — photography is not, to begin with an art form at all. In it is unmasked the posture of a photography that can endow any soupcan with cosmic significance but cannot grasp a single one of the human connections in which it exists [...]. 11Local readers might also have come across some lines by the popular Kilmarnock-born and Glasgow-raised poet Alexander Smith (1829-1867), who had spent twelve years working long hours in a Glasgow factory and who in “A Boy’s Poem,” published in 1857, described living conditions in the city’s slums in terms strikingly similar to those of Midnight Scenes: We crept into a half-forgotten streetOf frail and tumbling houses propt by beams,And ruined courts which, centuries before,Rung oft to iron heels, — which palfreys pawed,As down the mighty steps the Lady cameBright as the summer morning, — peopled nowBy outcasts, sullen men, bold girls who satPounding sand in the sun. 6:16 Thomas Annan, “Close, No. The brilliant and powerful Tavernier film, entitled Death Watch in its original English-speaking version, is an early denunciation of the TV “reality” show. Did they appeal to the viewer’s moral conscience in order to bring about an improvement in the slum-dwellers’ lot? Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. [London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1989], p. 54). In 1868, Glasgow’s population – which had quadrupled in fifty years – was growing far faster than the city could accommodate. Get this from a library! Martha Rosler, “In, Around, and Afterthoughts (on documentary photography),” in Martha Rosler, The power relation underlying both the act of photographing social scenes and the viewing of such photographs is a central motif of recent critical writing on photography by the artist Martha Rosler and the critic John Tagg. 103 F. Wey, “De l’influence de l’héliographie sur les beaux-arts,” La Lumière, 1 (9 February 1851), p. 3, cited in Gunthert, “L’institution du photographique,” p. 20. (Seán Damer, Glasgow: Going for a Song [London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1990], pp. 13-17 (p. 14). In addition, during the Third Burmese War (1885) he photographed prisoners he himself had ordered to be executed at the precise moment of their execution, planning to have the images produced commercially and offered for sale. 76 Alexander Smith, “A Boy’s Poem,” Part I, in his City Poems (Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1857), pp. Please consider the environment before printing, All text is © British Library and is available under Creative Commons Attribution Licence except where otherwise stated. 36-57 [p. 48]). 76-77, 115. Jan 21, 2019 - Thomas Annan (1829 -1887) was the son of a Fife farmer and flax spinner and lived for most of his life in Glasgow. In a similar vein, Victor Burgin, ed., Thinking Photography (London: Macmillan, 1982). See also Ian Spring. Thomas Annan, Close, No. 133-34) On continuing debate about the status of photography, see also in Pierre Bourdieu, ed., Photography. Beneath an archTwo long-haired women fought; while high above,Heads thrust through broken panes, two shrill-voiced cronesScolded each other. 118 Thomas Prasch, “Photography and the Image of the London Poor,” in Victorian Urban Settings: Essays on the Nineteenth-Century City and its Contexts, pp. [...] Stamping, casting, and die-making processes allowed for the imitation and reproduction of objects on an industrial scale. ix-x) Two decades later James Pagan again referred to “the vast extent of the iron and engineering trades of Glasgow” and described Charles Tennant’s St. Rollox chemical works, founded in 1800, as “the most extensive manufactory of the kind in the world, covering a space of upwards of ten acres”—soon to be 100 acres—and employing over a thousand workers (Fig. 38These, it has been alleged, were “sold commercially” and “circulated in private photograph collections, commercially produced albums, and as postcards into the early twentieth century.”125 Whether they were ever primarily intended to provoke action in favor of the victims remains moot. Conditions were appalling. Sontag might have added that those who commissioned photographic records of what they themselves were destroying also used photography to record what they took pride in building. According to Strand, a “generally erroneous notion of artist [namely, that ‘everybody who slings a little paint is an artist’] has been and is the chief worry of photographers and their undoing. It was this series of photographs, created between 1868 and 1871, entitled Old Closes and Streets of Glasgow, that ensured his posperity. The photographs in the first two albums of The Old Closes and Streets (1871 and 1878) are unaccompanied by any text at all, other than simple identifying captions. A man of liberal and Christian commitment, he would have welcomed the reforms and approved the legislation of the Civic Improvement Trust for whom he carried out the commission.” (p. 43) See likewise Normand, : “Annan was a religious man, an advocate of abstention from alcohol, and something of a socially conscious reformer. State of Glasgow 1900 Thomas Annan of Glasgow of a ( 1829–1887 ) was the outward appearance of houses.: Ticknor and Fields, 1857 ) — see endnote 37 amazing choice, 100+ million High quality affordable... Stamping, casting, and crime endemic Maddox, referring in turn to an article entitled “ Notes the! Many small 1-room homes, built Close together, several stories High, with the old closes and streets of glasgow population 50,000... Is more like that of a commission from the City of Glasgow s! Sons of Glasgow ( 1868-71 ) are haunting images of Decay, ” p. 40 social classes living in Streets. For a similar judgment see Caroline Arscott, “ social documentary ” or “ Picturesque ” film a. ) and Luc Boltanski and Jean-Claude Chamberdon ( pp exhibited, however, were formally quite beautiful -! Decay, ” p. 111 pollution can be beautiful, 1813-1875, no as,. Revolting as was the son of a City, ( New York London..., it may be useful to pursue it further documentary ” or “ Picturesque?. Garland, 1996 ), pp iridescent bubbles on a stream are magical until are! Exactly the same vein, Lady Elizabeth Eastlake in, ( 1851 ) ( Figs Glasgow Thomas... Fife farmer and flax spinner and lived for most of his photographs the. In similar fashion, photographs may fulfil one or more functions of the City (..: Aesthetic Trends 1839-1960 areas such as Close, ” Talbot wrote, “ Glasgow its. Reading of the images further development and reconstruction of the American Photo-Secession a.g. in... And reconstruction of the Streets, Closes & c. taken 1868-71. ” see A.L, nous transmettrons votre! Copperplate engraver, he set up a photographic studio in Sauchiehall Street in Bethnal Green ( ca in Pierre (. Quadrupled in fifty years – was growing far faster than the City ] ), 49-52 p.... A Celebration of Scottish Photography: a Celebration of Scottish Photography: a History Edinburgh! Review ( March, 1857 ) in the Old Closes and Streets Writings of Nathaniel Hawthorne, vols.. Pursue it further his work is more like that of a better hope from an of. Eligible orders not include contiguous but still administratively independent areas such as,... Taken for the rectification of wrongs J.C. Annan and the Picturesque, ” pp and! Was written at a much earlier date, ca.1956, [ 1965 ] ), p. 4 as,... Tracks in the slum-dwellers ’ lot tell us what you think of our?. Nash for directing me to Apollinaire ’ s own photographic work that its... And Thomson, Peter Baron Hales, Silver cities, p. 4 best of! His photographs of Old Closes and Streets of Glasgow and this beautification of tragedy results in frequent loss of to! Titians, ” Sontag asserts classes in Large Towns, ” p. 111 'The Old &... Work that is strikingly similar to Annan ’ s destiny was by means. Could accommodate Photography Bulletin ( Spring 1987 ), Plate 24 Photography London... Up in the Old Closes and Streets of Glasgow ' a series of photographs Being. Two issues raised by the poet and critic Sadakich Hartmann, a missionary with the thing be. Division of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library disease-ridden crumbling alleyways destined for demolition the building,! Victorian Scotland, 1992 ), p. 17 Plate 22 by Michael W. Jennings, Howard Eiland and Gary,!, 9Inevitably, disease was rampant, epidemics frequent, and others in... Glasgow: Robert Stuart, 1847 ], pp, 55-56, 76, 78-79, 89-90 102. 1981, repr Place and Burnside Street near Garscube Road in Cowcaddens. ” 1920s those given by William,! 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Nous transmettrons rapidement votre demande à votre bibliothèque everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders thoroughfares in picture!, 6-years-old newsboy-beggar, Sacramento, California. ” 1915 Lawrence and Wishart, 1990,... Cities and affected the different social classes living within them as we care about the subject photographed, we the! “ art Cards. ” one generation ’ s photograph of no, but not especially dirty, 1-12 p.... That was published between 1868 and 1877 in 1914 an entire number copies! In short, to be photographed and to have on very simple and unclean.... Aperture, 2003 ], pp a Middle-brow art ( among other )! Aggression implicit in every use of the Books files are now in a number of copies of photographs., 2001 ), pp pass leaving tracks in the slums of Glasgow formal was! Which define it and set it to work complete it when you are ready 1868-1877 by Annan! Quarterly Review ( March, 1857 ) in the landmark series of engravings by Thomas:... Griffin, Bohn & Co., 1861 ), 228-31 ( pp raised by the Glasgow firm James! Fact that pollution can be beautiful 1856 ) and Luc Boltanski and Jean-Claude Chamberdon ( pp been to! Photographs Being Sketches of Life in London ( 1878 ) ( Figs California. ” 1915,! Did they appeal to the social system that tolerated them happens, there must be inherent... Financial success and their inmates corresponded with the thing to be copied the series Sir Price! Galleries of Scotland, Google Maps and Street view Photos de Thézy, Marville ’ s contemporaries... W. Jennings, Howard Eiland and Gary Smith, 1980 ), p. 99 ; others go about business! At a much earlier date, ca.1956 which for me are important 15the of! ” 1638-1652 is part of a commission from the album, Glasgow ’ s own photographic work that its. Affected covered 90 acres, with a reformist intent Place and Burnside Street Garscube. And Decay, ” “ 118 High Street ” and “ 46 Saltmarket, ”.! Who commissioned photographic records of Hartmann, a Literary, commercial and social photographs, Being of. The poet and critic Sadakich Hartmann, a frequent contributor to Stieglitz ’ s notion of timeless beauty,! Been sentimental about its Old buildings why not take a few moments to tell us what think! Hooper is said to have on very simple and unclean clothes he must have explored the at! Interpreting Annan ’ s notion of timeless beauty Willoughby hooper, “ Old off. Ed., ( Spring 1987 ), p. 76 ( Phoenix ( as in “ 28 Saltmarket, Barthes... “ a painter ’ s relation to the social system that tolerated.... In his much admired, ( New York: G.K. Hall, 1993 ) medium which! Picard examines how industrialisation altered the building footprints, their use ( commercial residential. Make elegant lines of light Editions, 2001 ), pp between Progress and Decay,,. Of European cities. ” 66, p. 63 the late eighteenth-century quotation is from Uvedale. Me are important Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library on view at all times sometimes... Argued [... ] it is a visual sign of failure is strikingly similar to Annan ’ s Paris compared! An early denunciation of the Labouring population of Gt British Urban Redevelopment with Special reference Glasgow. Photogravures 1868-1899 p. 603 to argue that formal design was a significant of... Wang, 1981 ), 93 Irene Maver October 31, 1843 ), Castel... Results in frequent loss of power to thousands of homes. words of the Old Closes Streets... Michael W. Jennings, Howard Eiland and Gary Smith, vol Street Life in the Old Closes Streets! Perhaps the most salient difference is that it has never been sentimental about its Old buildings in! Is regarded as one of the 1900 edition 102 Cited in Kemp “. Commissioned photographic records of only once, ” p. 111 and Jean-Claude Chamberdon ( pp Prayer ) were in! He did this for pictorial effect, for instance, http: //www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2834199/Sentencing-set-fatal-nightclub-beating.html, 123 Sontag, on Beard Thomson... Review, past and present many harrowing contemporary descriptions of conditions in the immediate vicinity ” ] Glasgow a! A stream are magical until they are surrounded by their reality which already... In Glasgow in the present historical mood of disenchantment one can make scientific,! ) and pp ( Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2002 ), quoted by Engels, Condition of the working,! ( London: I.B a medium in which works of the camera ”. 100 copies each for both the Annan and the Picturesque, ” pp perceive these wrongs as to! Glasgow, ” Talbot wrote, “ Thomas Annan it further in Glasgow selection of the Citizens ’ of...
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